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School Leadership

From educational research journals, to find three research articles, which are related to each other in their research questions, for example

They studied the same research area or even same concept in education, such as “students’ discipline problems in school”, or “self-esteem of students”.

They proposed the same or similar research question(s), such as “the relationship between self-esteem and achievement of the students” and “the relationship between self-esteem and family support”.

It is better (not compulsory) to find the studies were conducted by using different research methods

(Note: Please do NOT include article(s) by using the method of “meta analysis”. For kind of article it will be very difficult to answer the questions below. However, it will be a good idea from this kind of article to find several original research articles.)

You are required to provide where did you find the articles and how did you find them. Provide the sources of them. (2%)

Articles about educational leadership are common in graduate school library. You can select the best researches with relevant findings to help you understand the subject matter. On this behalf three of the most innovative and latest issues on educational leadership are the selected. These are the following; Study about program for School Leadership Improvement, it was retrieve at online library archive of Educational studies in United States done to improve the leadership in US schools (www.questia.com).

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School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals was a research study conducted to develop leaders to manage educational institution conducted at several institutions in United States. This research study employed the necessary elements of research in order to develop and improve the leadership characteristics of principals in a educational settings and institutions. This research was published at Education Magazine in Instructional Leadership for Systemic Change in 2005.

The third research study was Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal conducted by students from Curtin University of Technology in 2003; this research was retrieve through Educational Leadership Gazette 2004 online submitted to annual conference for the Australian Association for Research in Education in Melbourne. These researches are performed to elevate the standards of leadership especially in secondary and tertiary levels. There is common ground in all of these researches; this is based on the foundation of effective leadership and governance in any educational institutions. Providing relevant data and new found knowledge, method of teaching, leadership and techniques are highly stated in the objectives of each research studies.

Briefly describe the studies reported by each of the articles

How was each of these studies conducted?

What type of research method(s) were used in these studies?

What results have been reported in these articles?

After read your description, the reader should be able to know studies roughly (6%).

Program for School Leadership Improvement

The program engages in continuing self-assessment and improvement of its performance. Throughout this report, terms such as “model,” “strong,” and “inadequate” programs and variations thereof are used. This study employed case study method. A model or exemplary program is one that substantially meets all nine criteria. A strong program is one that substantially satisfies most of the criteria. An inadequate program is defined as one that fails to achieve most of the criteria or has a fatal flaw such as an incompetent faculty. The findings of this study were very disappointing.

Collectively, educational administration programs are the weakest of all the programs at the nation’s education schools. This is distressing not only because of the magnitude of the jobs that principals and superintendents must perform, but also because of the large number of school leaders who will need to be hired in the next decade. In the course of the study, we managed to locate only a small umber of strong programs in the United States. None was considered exemplary. The most promising model that we found was located in England at the National College for School Leadership (NCSL), which operates in a very different fashion than school leadership programs in the United States. The development of the nation’s school leadership and management programs, offer a profile of the numbers and types of leadership programs in universities today, describe the growing number of non-university-based school leadership programs, examine the most promising model of school leadership education encountered, and offer recommendations about how to strengthen university educational administration programs

“School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals”

Principals play a vital and multifaceted role in setting the direction for schools that are positive and productive workplaces for teachers and vibrant learning environments for children, but existing knowledge on the best ways to develop these effective leaders is insufficient. The need to identify and replicate effective pre- and in-service programs and program structures that produce the most highly qualified school leaders has motivated a major research study commissioned by The Wallace Foundation and undertaken by the Stanford Educational Leadership Institute in conjunction with The Finance Project. This study — “School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals” — conducts a series of in-depth case analyses of eight highly developed pre- and in-service program models in five states, and tracks the graduates into the schools they lead.

The study not only examines the conduct of the programs and the perceptions of Participants, but it also interviews and surveys graduates — along with a comparison sample of principals — about their preparedness and practices. The study also follows a sub-sample of program participants into their schools, examining school operations, teachers’ views of the school leadership, and trends in student performance. Cost analysis of case studies is conducted by The Finance Project, a Washington, DC- based, nonprofit research organization. The Finance Project also explores the state policy and finance structures that foster effective programs. Research on principal preparation and development programs suggests that certain program features are essential in the development of effective school leaders.

There is also little discrepancy between guidelines for pre- and in-service programs. Evidence indicates that effective programs are research-based, have curricular coherence, provide experience in authentic contexts, use cohort groupings and mentors, and are structured to enable collaborative activity between the program and area schools. Despite existing consensus, empirical evidence for the impact of these features is currently minimal.

Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal

This paper reports the findings of an investigation into school renewal and leadership that was conducted in 2003. School renewal is a type of whole-school change that engages and excites the school community to promote, accept and embed the change leading to improved student learning. In respect to the research objectives presented data were collected through interviews with a purposive sample of principals in situ and identified through the quantitative phase of the study (Silcox, Cavanagh and Dellar, 2003).

The design of the interview schedule was based upon the preliminary conceptual framework presented in the research output and was developed taking cognizance of the findings of quantitative data. The paper concentrates on the study of leadership of school renewal with specific reference to some of the key influences in implementing a renewal agenda in schools. It provides an invaluable and reflective insight into renewal and change processes in schools.

This research study , based on a mixed methodology research format conducted in Western Australia, shows the critical role the principal plays in bringing about school-renewal. The paper concludes by presenting a conceptual framework of principal leadership and school renewal for consideration. In so doing it both challenges and confirms literature and research in the area of leadership and school change. The research has important implications for all school communities.

Make comments on each of the articles (20%)

Is the research problem clearly stated? Be specific.

Is the significance of the problem established? Be specific.

Identify the hypothesis (if there is any). Is the hypothesis clearly stated? Be specific.

How could you identify the type of research method used in each study? Explain your answer.

How were the variables measured in the study? Are the measurements reliable and valid?

How were the participants in these studies selected? What type of sampling method was used? Explain your answer.

Make comments on the research design of each of these studies. List the strength and weakness of each study, provide possible improvements.

What type of data analysis was used in each study report? Specify the details.

Do you think the data analysis conducted correctly and effectively? Any suggestions for improvement?

Is the study ethically sound?

Is the report written well? Explain your answer.

Program for School Leadership Improvement

The study’s problem was clearly stated in the research report. The research work try to explain the and identify what kind of program to be implemented in order to achieved the improvement in school’s leadership and administration. There is no stated hypothesis in the study because the purpose of the study is not probing certain speculations but to develop new concepts of leadership through program implementation. The significance of the study was concentrated on the educational institutions and other learning community. The result of this study according to the desired result of researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest standard of leadership in education.

The study employ case study, this method typically examine the interplay of all variables in order to provide as complete an understanding of an event or situation as possible. This type of comprehensive method understand the arrived phenomenon at through a process known as thick description, which involves an in-depth description of the entity being evaluated, the events and circumstances under which it is used, the characteristics and identity of the people involved in it, and the nature of the community in which it is located. Thick description in this study also involves interpreting the meaning of all demographic and descriptive data collected such as cultural norms and mores, community values, ingrained attitudes, and motives.

Unlike quantitative methods of research, this study chooses participants or respondents through selection process because the target population is only the supervisory level which is limited in number. Like the survey, which focus on the questions of who, how much, and how many, what, where and archival analysis, which often situates the participant in some form of historical context, this method which is case studies are the preferred strategy when how or why questions are asked. Likewise, they are the preferred method when the researcher has little control over the events, and when there is a contemporary focus within a real life context. In addition, unlike more specifically directed experiments, case studies require a problem that seeks a holistic understanding of the event or situation in question using inductive logic–reasoning from specific to more general terms.

Data analysis performed through application of certain methods drawn from the in formations and data gathered.

School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals

The study’s problem was also stated in the research report. The research study try to develop and improved the leadership skills of principals in educational settings, the study will lead and aim the improvement in school’s leadership and administration through developing of effective and successful principals. There is stated hypothesis in the study; the purpose of the study is to develop skills and supervisory method and leadership techniques in leading schools through empowerment of principals. The significance of the study was also concentrated on the educational institutions and other learning community specially principals. The result of this study according to the desired result of researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest standard of leadership character and skills in education.

Recognizing that some of the variables in this study do not have problems as such. The educational organization may be doing quite well. Leadership in educational setting are real-world situations, it not necessarily examples of bad leadership or management. The situations in this study are approaching with a point of view. I can say that the researchers may be alert for the danger that some of the data and information in some circumstances is coming from biased participants and therefore must be taken with a grain of salt.

Recommendations in this study must be logically follow from the analysis and they should be feasible. Finally, the study report must be well-written, clearly organized, and sequential and has a logical flow. Poor writing will affect the reader’s apprehension. It usually helps to provide a brief summary statement and “roadmap” at the beginning of the analysis to orient and guide the reader. Also make sure that making any recommendations to be provided follows directly from the analysis of the problem, and that your overall conclusions are consistent with your analysis. Those are the strengths and weaknesses of this study.

3. Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal

The study’s problem was clearly stated in the research study. The research work try to explain the and conceptualize what kind of leadership styles to be adapted by school principal in order to achieved the improvement in school’s leadership and administration. Renewal is also one of the subjects in this research, transformation of technique and method will probably lead to more advancing and productive leadership. There is no stated hypothesis in the study because the purpose of the study is not probing certain speculations but to develop new concepts of leadership through adaptation of new leadership concepts and program implementation. The significance of the study was concentrated on the educational institutions and other learning community. The result of this study according to the desired result of researchers is focused on achieving the possible highest standard of leadership in education.

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The research study is related to the investigation of the relationship between the leadership behavior of school principals and school renewal, and, in particular, tried to investigate and explain the type of leadership behaviors showed or displayed by these principals engaged in school renewal activities. Practical aspects of the study necessitated the use of a mixed method paradigm. As the study sought to examine attributes of school leadership and their influence on school renewal in a local education district data, therefore, needed to be collected from a sample of principals sufficiently large to be representative of the general population. In the first instance, this required application of quantitative data collection methods.

On the other hand, investigating the influence of leadership on renewal was anticipated to require careful attention to the context of the individual school and of the interaction between the leader and other members of the school community. This necessitated qualitative data collection methods in a small number of schools to provide highly detailed and contextualized information. Thus, both quantitative and qualitative research methods were originally applied in a mixed-method investigation format. The two methods were invoked sequentially at different points in the study, hence maximizing the strengths of both methods.

In respect to the research objectives presented data were collected through interviews with a purposive sample of principals in situ and identified through the quantitative phase of the study (Silcox, Cavanagh and Dellar, 2003). The design of the interview schedule was based upon the preliminary conceptual framework presented as Figure 1, and was developed taking cognisance of the findings of quantitative data (Silcox, 2003). A set of survey questions was developed and adapted within parameters of study area established by the research objectives. The qualitative phase of the research sought to obtain information from a particular cohort of principals on their perception of a specific concept, school renewal, and specific leadership behavioral characteristics employed in bringing about renewal as a change paradigm in schools. Therefore, it was appropriate to use an interview survey technique.

There is no indicative of major weakness in this study; all data and analysis are drawn properly. There are justifications in the elements present in every variable.


In general all these studies presents the concrete narrative information and details of actual, or at least realistic events, it has a plot, exposition, characters, and sometimes even dialogue” Generally, these three educational leadership study reports are extensively descriptive and narrative in presenting their data and analysis, with the issues concerned are being the determinant of the right combination of identity, description and analysis.. Typically, all the authors of different studies addressed each step of the research methodology and process, and they attempted to give the reader as much enough data and in context as possible for the decisions and analysis they made in the research studies and for the conclusions being drawn from the study.

This contextualization was included a detailed presentation and explanation of the theoretical positions of all the researchers, how those data and theories drove the inquiry or led to the guiding conceptualization of research questions, of the processes of data collection, of the participants’ backgrounds, of the training and limitations of the coders, with a firm or strong attempt to make all connections between the information and data and the conclusions was clearly evident.

Although the educational leadership researches study is completed, it does not reports which include the reactions of all the respondents to the research study or to the conclusions of the researchers. Because theses studies tend to be more exploratory, most ends will be with implications for further study. Here in this study, researchers identified the significant factors or variables that come up or emerged during the research process and suggested studies related to these, the authors also suggested further general questions that their research study generated.

The second study concludes with a section dedicated solely to the topic of implications for further study and research, in which they suggested several means by which this particular study could have been improved, as well as questions and ideas raised by this study which other researchers and leadership institutions might like to address, such as: is there a correlation between a certain personality in leadership styles and a certain composing process of population’s profile.

Also included in these studies is a section dedicated to implications for teaching, because the topic is about leadership in educational institutions which outlines the pedagogical ramifications of the study’s findings for teachers and managers who are currently involved in school programs.

The sample is defined as the representative of the population, but in this study selection bias is a possible. A statistic used in the third study have the possibility of being biased if the value of the statistic tends to be wrong or more precisely, if the expected value–the average value from many samples drawn using the same sampling method–is not the same as the population value. A typical source of bias in population studies is socioeconomic or age status: people with extreme values for these variables tend not to take part in these studies Thus a high compliance (the proportion of people contacted who end up as subjects) is important in avoiding bias. Journal editors of the publications where these researches published happy with compliance rates of at least 70% in the study done.

In these researches the most important variable the researchers have to balance is the implementation of pre-test ion the dependent variable itself. The researchers balanced randomization for this study or another by numeric factors.

When selecting subjects and designing protocols for studies, researchers often strive to eliminate all variation in subject characteristics and behaviors. Their aim is to get greater precision in the estimate of the effect of the specific protocols. The problem with this approach is that the effect generalizes only to subjects with the same narrow range of characteristics and behaviors as in the sample. Depending on the nature of the study, the researchers may have to strike a balance between precision and applicability. If they lean towards applicability, their subjects will vary substantially on some characteristic or behavior that you should measure and include in your analysis.

Compare and the contrast the research methods used in the three studies (12%)

From methodology point of view, what are the similarities and what are the differences of these studies

Which study do you think was conducted better? Why?

Which study you dislike? Why?

These three researches have different characteristics in terms of methodological designs. But all of them used the proper and best methodological designs and draw important conclusion and outcome that benefited and improve the educational leadership. In the study about Program for School Leadership Improvement, a case study was utilized and was discussed within the context of qualitative research and naturalistic inquiry. This study was done with some method with field study, ethnography, and participant observation to draw conclusions properly. The philosophical assumptions underlined in this research are similar to these types of qualitative research design because each takes place in a natural setting such as a classroom, and other educational institutions .The study also arrives for a more relevant and holistic interpretation of the specific event or situation being observed in the study under study. This kind of research design is different from statistically-based research studies which search for quantifiable data. The main objective of this study is to find and give new variables and questions for future studies.

The second study was entitled School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals. The researchers used case analysis method in conducting the study. A major characteristic of conducting this kind of research is that you never have all the access for the information that you need and oftentimes considerable data and information which is nor important, irrelevant, obscure, trivial or even obfuscating. The lack or absence of important information may force the researchers to make one or more assumptions. Assumptions drawn u from this research is clearly labeled, they are appropriate and they realistic.

The last research study entitled “Conceptualizing principal leadership of school renewal” used quantitative research design. This research profile a target specific population by determining the proportion of the population’s has certain attitudes , behaviors, behavioral, intentions, skills and knowledge related to the leadership concern, and whether specific determinants predict effectiveness at a statistically significant level. The researchers used a structured type of questionnaire that contains predominantly closed-ended, or forced-choice, questions. The research design and research conduct in the research quantitative survey implemented by this study consider getting information and data from a survey result.

The major concerns need to consider issues and circumstances is mostly related to designed appropriate sample, this stuffy used reliable and valid measures, and conducted a pilot or pretest before the actual survey study was launched. This study is a custom type designed to seek specific knowledge or answers from a specific set of research questionnaire. This study is also somewhat omnibus in nature because it added questions about the topic with regards to an existing survey. The findings were generalized beyond the participant group which is the supervisory level in educational institutions.

At the conclusion of each research analysis, the researchers offer recommendations for change or application of knowledge drawn from the study. These recommendations are also for situation to be handled better like interventions, programs and behavioral modifications. Some of theses recommendations have both positive prospects and negative consequences when applied to certain cases. A solution may eventually work for certain cases but be very costly, some changes are difficult to achieve or implement and take a long time and effort to have a significant impact in any area of target. Researchers must develop the recommendations that impact is for maximum positive products and minimum negative consequences.

Any other comments or points related to these research reports.

These educational leadership research study must advocates and point out that research can produce much contain and more detailed data and information that is readily available Many analysis can also use as an alternative to discover the relationships between variables, some of these can be obtain through a statistical analysis. Research advocates on educational reform will also implement different kind of methods suitable for the study while statistical methods might also be used and be able to deal with situations where attitude and behavior is homogeneous and routine.

Methodological designs are also needed to deal with creativity, change, innovation, and overall context that they can apply to improve the study more. Many research detractors argue that some educational studies are difficult to generalize or apply to all concepts because of inherent subjectivity and because most of the research is based on qualitative subjective data and the generalizability are applied only to a particular context.


In doing researches overcoming many challenges including the accessibility and brevity of the study is necessary for any educational or social institutions doing the research study. I have the following suggestions to make the impact of this study and research stronger.

First, the presentation of your research must be as user-friendly as possible provided with a clearly marked sections, marks and sidebars with some of the additional and supplementary information. Second, defining the important terminologies and provide some examples for every items made. Third is the anticipation of questions from the researchers must answer them in the publication. Fourth is illustrating your findings through the use of graphs or charts. Fifth is you have to break all the information into short sentences, paragraphs or lists. Using of different colors, lines, images and sizes of fonts are good to improve the interests of reader to browse the researches. Adding references and footnotes with further information for readers is also vital. And lastly you have to mention who prepared the research, and audience or for whom it was prepared, and contact information for each author. This is necessary for the readers to clarify or to verify some information and data indicated in the research paper.

Research papers and other studies must have the connection between theory and empirical data -empirical data is the evidence we obtain from the social world. Makes the connection between theory and empirical data. This empirical data is the evidence we obtain from the social world. By starting with a theory and then testing it with data, this is also referred to as deductive research. By developing a connection between social theory and data the researchers must first collect data and then develop a theory supported by the findings or inductive research.

For the researcher to come up with a good research, they must manage bias by testing ideas without becoming too personally invested in a particular outcome unlike what they did in certain methodology in these researches. Being systematic in carrying out investigations is also important to have good research.

Documentation of all procedures and making it available to public and other researchers are also limits the bias. Clarifying of underlying assumption that the research is based on and all the underlying assumptions in the research in must be clarified as well as the definitions of terms used in the research which is not applied in these researches. Another way to manage bias is by testing the ideas without becoming too personally invested in a particular outcome. The researchers must be systematic in carrying out investigations

Maintaining a skeptical stance toward current knowledge can also be a factor to produce good research work. This improves upon the validity of their results. Critiquing current research by addressing the problems in the research can generate additional research. Ethical issues must also address in any research studies, honesty and openness is vital in conducting research.

Researchers need to be honest about their procedures in order for other researchers to be able to duplicate the research. Duplication of the research lends validity to results. Additionally, openness is needed in order for researcher to learn from the work of others. The lack of openness sometimes happens because researchers want credit for their discoveries. Good research should also be ethical and should cause no harm to subjects or respondents. All subjects should be voluntary participation; subjects must give informed consent. Researchers should fully disclose their identity. Unless voluntarily waived, anonymity or confidentiality must be maintained for all individuals participating in research. Benefits of the research must outweigh foreseeable risks.

Good research also conceptualizes terms conceptualization is defined as the process of specifying what we mean by a term. In deductive research, conceptualization helps to translate portions of an abstract theory into testable hypotheses involving specific variables. In inductive research, conceptualization is an important part of the process used to make sense of related observations. And lastly, good research devise operations that measure the concepts under investigation.

Length of the assignment: 3000 words.


Jackson, B. L., & Kelley, C. (2002). Exceptional and innovative programs in educational

leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 38(2), 192-212.

Jaquiss, N. (1999, November 10). A Matter of Principals. Willamette Week. Retrieved from


Knapp, M. S., Copland & M. A., Talbert, J. E. (2003, February). Leading for learning: Reflec-

tive tools for school and district leaders (research report). Seattle, WA: Center for the

Study of Teaching and Policy.

Kolb, D. A., & Boyatzis


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