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Homeland Security Responses to Chemical, Biological, Nuclear, and Explosive Terrorism

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Extremism is a concern that extends back to theological times. During the course of olden times, extremist has been involved in acts of ferocity to advance governmental causes, such as conquering a domestic tyrant, and banishing a violent government. Extremism involving, CBRNE deals with the use of any lethal element or pathogen in search of definite objectives. The apparatuses extremist assembled most frequently were ordnances, explosive devices, orthodox explosives, abduction, and aircraft hijacking, all with the objective of harvesting adequate publicizing to advance their purposes.

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Terrorist are not known for being particularly innovative. If a tactic or incident is a real attention-getter, other terrorists usually imitate it. Several questions have therefore been left in the air, which can be grouped as the three w’s of chemical and biological terrorism. Preparation for an intermediate or advanced nuclear attack is more overwhelming. This is where the development of Homeland Security and its part arise into action.

Part of the concern is justifying the use of chemical, biological, nuclear, and explosive materials (CRBNE) for terroristic purposes. Determining what is considered a weapon of mass destruction, when involving the CRBNE categories. It draws the attention of the analyst away from political purposes of alternating towards CBRNE weapons concerning the significance of such engagement. The alignment of CBRNE weapons into one category when referring to weapons of mass destruction, it hazes the risk and the magnitude for each distinct class of non- conventional weapons.

The role of Homeland Security Intelligence (HSINT) in facilitating the furtherance of counter- Chemical, Biological, Nuclear, and Explosive materials (CBRNE), policy and practice within homeland security is to provide a new and improved standard toward the threat of reality when counteracting issues involving weapons of mass destruction on at a HSINT level. Before the September 11, 2001 attack on our nation, weapons of mass destruction exhibited substandard features. Offenders were mainly trailblazer’s motivated by monetary profits.

Homeland Security Intelligence had to resolve the problem of rationalizing the use of (CBRNE) and the terrorist purposes, which resulted in the qualification of weapons of mass destruction. Several incidents contributed to this development. It is vital for the nation to have reliable CBRNE in order to counter-measure equipment that can be used with promise for the safety of existence, health, land and business.

When investigating federal responses to CBRNE terrorism, there is a tendency to confuse what the Department of Defense does to safeguard its services from nuclear biological chemical artilleries and what the department of homeland security does to support state and local reactions to the CBRNE episodes. When considering the role of HISNT, it has to break down into components to understand how important HISNT is to protecting the lives of the nation and preventing threats before they occur.

Beginning with biological weapons, they are pathogens used for hostile purposes and are different from all the other category of weapons. Biological weapons can be put in any substance and can be inhaled, while also killing large amounts of people at one time. After the 9/11 attacks, there were multiple letters containing anthrax, which were mailed to journalists and politicians.

There were at least twenty-two people who had become infected and approximately five died from the biological weapon.  Anthrax bacterium has been considered a prime biological weapon before the 9/11 attack on the nation. Throughout World War II, British and American experimentations confirmed that the inhalation of airborne microorganisms would destroy livestock and presumably humans. In the 50s and 60s, the United States Army conducted hundreds of germ warfare tests in populated areas throughout the United States.

Biological extremism is the most popular. Reason being, Hollywood has produced short story narratives, which has convinced the American population, that an infectious disease without a cure is being secretly established in a controlled laboratory. There is a long history on the handling of natural diseases, and the rise of biological warfare. There is a dissimilarity between addressing deliberate and natural disease outbreaks. Some say it’s due to the greater access to technology linked to natural biological viruses.

The USA Patriot Act, which was legislated after the September 11, 2001 events and anthrax epidemics, placed limitations on who could have admittance to select agents in American workshops. Those who were specifically prohibited were of those from Cuba, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, Syria or any other nation by the State Department as a promoter of violence.

Chemical extremism has been moderated, due to not affecting sufficient causalities. Chemical extremism remains the most likely form of CBRNE extremism. Toxic inhalation hazards, such as chlorine and phosgene. Most toxic chemical have colors and smells that cause people to take preventative measures prior to succumbing to their effects. The department of homeland security and intelligence should focus on providing installation security assessments and identify ways to assist the industry vs being just regulators. Chemical weapons create different challenges that other weapons part of the CBRNE, due to its lethal effects that makes it lethal. Chemical weapons act rapidly. When it comes to decontamination and responder safety it makes the treatment to a victim a lot more difficult. Chemical attacks cause a great number of psychological issues. July of 2006, the FBI formed, Weapons of Mass Destruction. It concentrated on Intel, preparation and responsiveness as well as counter-proliferation and averting the gaining of predecessor substances.

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Radiological extremism (dirty bomb) are the spread of hazardous material with the objective to cause destruction. It can be used in every day research laboratories, hospitals, food preservation plants, or manufacturing practices. Most radiological extremism cause localized affects, which can result in a neighborhood or quite a few square miles. The impact of a this form of terrorism will be based on the amount of radiation absorbed in the body, the type of radiation, the distance of the radiation to the person, and the means of exposure whether it is internal or externally absorbed in the body, at the time of exposure. Radiological extremism is how a lot of individuals are being diagnosed with cancer.

When you think of nuclear extremism, North Korea comes to mind. There has been many threats of North Korea bombing the United States with a nuclear bomb, which could wipe out have the United States. Nuclear extremism is the most dangerous, and will ultimately cause the most impact if we are ever successfully attacked. Nuclear weapons can be produced with use of a crude weapon or dirty bomb. Although, the United States and Russia are the two countries with largest amasses of nuclear material, the United States is still at risk. Reason being the amount of access to radiological weapons that can be rigid into nuclear weapons.

From a HISNT viewpoint, evaluating the hazard presented by terrorist attainment of an atomic explosive is not easy. Unlike biological weapons, an atomic explosive can only be a weapon of mass destruction. If terrorist get the necessary amount of fissile material and ignite an atomic device, the magnitude would be devastating in terms of lives lost, structural destruction, and psychological effects resulting in post-traumatic disorder (PTSD).

While much is acknowledged about the 2001 anthrax occurrences, many concerns continue unsettled. Some have less bearing than others on obstructive pathways to increase and use. A procedure of identifying potential bio-agents have improved and has awareness of the bio-threat among health and security agencies, but still varies widely from community to community.

With HISNT working hard on a day-to-day basis to ensure the vigilance for any attack is intimidating. Reason being in the event another attack like 9/11 or an outbreak of anthrax occurs again, there is the thought more lives being lost and the destruction of infrastructure, and the prompt depressing psychological effects through the nation.  While it may be difficult to completely eradicate prohibited atomic source organizations, pursuing key essentials within the illegal trade would decrease extremist admittance to atomic resources and artilleries.

CBRNE extremism has been proficient during the course of history and all categories of evolution. Toxic elements, whether animal, plant base, or inorganic, have been used for governmental homicides or interference. Notwithstanding the risk of cruel retributions, the viewpoint of certain triumphs fascinated poisoners to the elements.

In closing, CBRNE remains to be a major issue in the nation. HISNT has generated multiple polices to avert the use of these types of weapons, but ever so often we have an attack on the nation with use of the weapons described in CBRNE. Although, there hasn’t been a threat as catastrophic as the 9/11 attacks we still have attacks almost once every year, and they all have been citizens of the United States. Despite the fact, HISNT can have a plan for vigilance in the event another attack occurs, the focus needs to be for in house and outside attacks in order to put an end to the devastating and major psychological effects the nation has endured.



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