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Homeland Security Emergency Management Mitigation, Preparedness, Response, and Recovery

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Preparedness is a state of readiness. Preparedness is the most important part of emergency management. This paper will explore the four phase of homeland security emergency management mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.

Homeland Security Overview

Homeland security is a federal organization that was established to protect the United States of American against threats and terrorism. There is a wide range of duties that homeland security handles such as emergency response, aviation security, border control, and cybersecurity (“What is U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS)?”). The Homeland security implements steps to efficient handle incidents by planning the processes. The clarification of the homeland security process will be explored through mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.


Mitigation is the attempt to decrease property and lose of someone life by reducing the impact of disasters, hazards, and emergencies (“What is Mitigation?”). However, for mitigation to operate successfully the citizens of United States must understand the risk, choices, and invest in the United States community’s well-being (“What is Mitigation?”). This is accomplished by local ordinances, regulations, land use, and mitigation projects and building that decreases the long-term risk of hazards and their effects (“What is Mitigation?”). Mitigation has many programs such as hazard mitigation assistance, floodplain management, and national dam safety programs (“What is Mitigation?”). Furthermore, mitigation is very valuable to the United States it allows individuals to reduce the effects flood disasters and recover, it reduces the financial influence the on communities, individuals, and the United States as a whole (“What is Mitigation?”).



Preparedness is an important tool used for generating emergency management plans for disasters and hazards in of an emergency. It brings awareness to understanding the fundamentals of decision making and risk informed planning to help examine a threat or hazard and produce coordinated, integrated, and synchronized plans (“Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans”, 2010). Preparedness has three divisions that outlines it. The National Response Framework (NRF) is a guide that addresses how the nation should respond to a variety of emergencies and disasters (“National Response Frame Work”). The National Response Framework was created on an approach to allow organizations to be more adjustable, extensible, and versatile, which is established in the National Incident Management System (NIMS). NIMS is a model that gives responsibilities and important positions to all levels of government, private sectors, and non-governmental organizations. These organization that help to prevent mitigate, respond to, protect against, and recover from incidents (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). NIMS defines operational systems such as the Incident Command System, which is a management system that that was constructed to allow well-organized domestic incident management by linking equipment, personnel, procedures, facilities, and communication within an organization formation (“Incident Command System Resources”). ICS is structured to facilitate in five functional areas, which are the following: operations, command, logistics, planning, investigations &intelligence, administration and finance (“Incident Command System Resources”).



Being able to respond to disasters and emergencies are necessary to saving many lives, protecting the environment, and being able to meet human needs after an incident occurs. It establishes many things such as, safety, stabilize the incident, establish basic service and community performance, and simplify the combination of recovery operations (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). The response mission is to certify the United States is able to act in response to all incidents that are organized with local assets to those of destructive proportion that needs arranging of the whole United States (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). The following principles create fundamentals for the response mission area: tiered response, agreement of attempt through unified command, engaged partnership, flexible, adaptable, and scalable operational effectiveness, and preparation to act according (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016).  This mirrors the history of emergency management that is established in many ways and the structure disposal of responsibilities linking state and federal government (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). Furthermore, as incidents change scope, size, and complexity, response effects need to adapt to meet requirements (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). Also, unified command is important to response activities and needs an understanding of the responsibilities of all organizations that participates (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). Response needs a readiness act that relates with an understanding of hazards and risk responders face (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). National response built upon the competence to act precisely from people and communities, both private and non-profit organizations, and includes local, state, and federal government. Response needs a readiness act that relates with an understanding of hazards and risk responders face (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016).



Recovery is required to assist all communities that have been overwhelmed by an incident to recover adequately and productively (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). Resiliency and continuity of operations planning is an important part of recover for homeland security. Continuity of Operation planning (COOP) is an attempt within executive agencies and departments to make sure the primary mission essential functions continue to be carried out during a wide variety of emergencies, including technological and accidents, localized acts of nature, and attack-related emergencies (“Continuity of Operations Planning”).  COOP is very important to organizations practices, because planning allows survival and recovery in and after emergency situations (“Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP)”). COOP establishes guidance and policy make sure that important functions continue, and resources and personnel are moved to alternate facility in case of emergencies (“Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP)”). The COOP should develop procedures for the following: roster personnel with knowledge of function s, establish an alternate facility, alerting, notifying, activating and deploying employees, and identify important organization functions (“Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP)”). Moreover, resiliency of operation planning drives organizations to evaluate plans, policies, and implement projects that allows communities to thrive and adapt when disasters occur (“Resilience Planning”). Resiliency planning includes things as of the following: zoning, development standards, land use codes, incentive programs, and other plans to prepare for stressful situations which establishing measures that allow for action in the face of unexpected events (“Resilience Planning”). Resiliency planning consist of the following: document existing conditions in the community, establish a vision of resilience for the community, review the stresses to understanding vulnerabilities, develop forward-looking goals, priorities, and actionable strategies, and provide a framework for ongoing implementation and for community to establish increase community (“Resilience Planning”). Also, resilience planning provides communities with a consideration of programs, services, and policies. It can help reduce and anticipate seriousness of downturns (“Resilience Planning”).

Biblical View/ Perspective


Mitigation is necessary to decrease property and loss of life by reducing the impact of disasters (“What is Mitigation?”). In the bible, 2 Corinthians 4:8-9 states, “We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair; persecuted, but not abandoned; struck down, but not destroyed”. When disasters occur and destroy everything mitigation will reduce this impact. It gives individuals a piece of mind to know everything won’t be destroyed.

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Preparedness is guidance for creating emergency operations plans. (“Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans”, 2010). In the bible, Matthew 24:44 states, “Therefore you also must be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.” This scripture means that being prepared is important because disasters are uncertain. Also, being prepared will help organizations continue to operation through any hazards or emergencies.

Response to disasters, hazards, and emergences are necessary to help save people lives, protect the environment and property against permanent damage, and meet human needs after an incident arise (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). In the bible, Proverbs 3:25-36 states, “Have no fear of sudden disaster or of the ruin that overtakes the wicked, for the Lord will be your confidence and will keep your feet from being snared”. Responding to disasters efficiently will help keep people confidence in the nation by all levels of government working together to establish safety for civilians.

Recovery is required to assist all communities that have been affected by an incident to

recover effectively and efficiently (“National Response Frame Work”, 2016). Revelation 21:4, states “He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things have passed away”. The recovery processes are required to for every emergency to rebuild what was destroyed in organizations and communities.

In Conclusion, the clarification of the homeland security process is explored through mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery, which are all equally important when preparing for a disaster. The awareness of threats asses, identifies, and prioritize threats and risk to establish mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery (“Threat Awareness, 2018”). Being prepared for disasters and other emergency are very important to homeland security of the nation, because emergency management is one of the vital components of preparedness in the United States today.



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