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Annotated Bibliography: Swetman Security Service Homeland Security Threat Preparedness Assessment

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Annotated Bibliography: Swetman Security Service Homeland Security Threat Preparedness Assessment

Caruson, Kiki & MacManus, Susan A. (2005). Homeland security preparedness: Federal and state mandates and local government. Spectrum: Journal of State Government. Vol. 78 Issue 2, pp. 25-28. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=8&sid=d63cfee7-dc92-4624-827f-6bd2db4feee%40pdc-v-sessmgr01.

This scholarly journal article addressed the results of survey research conducted by Kiki Caruson, an assistant professor and McKnight Fellow in the Department of Government and International Affairs at the University of South Florida, and Susan A. MacManus, a Distinguished University Professor of Public Administration and Political Science in the Department of Government and International Affairs at the University of South Florida, into the effects that Homeland Security Preparedness mandates implemented by Federal and State level government has had on Local Governments (2005). Caruson and MacManus surveyed all walks of Local Government entities in Florida from administration to front line personnel and their research survey determined the following: The impact of Homeland Security mandates on Local Government has mainly been financial because Homeland Security preparedness is very expensive; the greatest unmet needs at the local level were money, specialized equipment, and training and information technology (2005).

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This article provided valuable insights into issues that Federal and State mandates impose on Local Governments and those issues of lack of money, lack of specialized equipment, lack of training, and lack of adequate information technology are potential areas of interest when formulating survey questions for my research thesis topic questionnaire.


Pasley, James F. (2003). United states homeland security in the information age: Dealing with the threat of cyberterrorism. White House Studies. Nova Sciences Publishers, Inc. Vol. 3 Issue 4, pp. 403-410. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=5801ee96-e3a7-4995-bfe6-773e5832adb6%40pdc-v-sessmgr06.

This scholarly journal article looks at cyberterrorism as a threat to Homeland Security and the actions taken by the George W. Bush administration to handle this dangerous threat. The article suggests the terrorist attacks that occurred on 09/11/2001 would have been much worse had a coordinated cyber attack been executed against the United States at the same time. The article goes on to suggest that we as a nation must be vigilant in our efforts to defend our nation against cyber terrorism. The article states that while we are moving in the right direction with the steps we are taking to prevent cyber terrorism we need to be doing more to fortify our national cyber security. The article emphasizes that we need to strengthen our national strategy to make our cyberspace more secure (2003). Pasley’s research indicated that the weakest links in fighting cyberterrorism in the United States are the lack of promotion of cooperation between federal, state, and local agencies and the private sector. Pasley concluded that the government agencies need to cooperate together to provide leadership and guidance for the private sector to become more organized to be more prepared to fight cyberterrorism in the private sector at the local level (2003).

The article provided valuable insights into the need for us to improve our preparedness against cyberterrorism in our country especially in the private sector at the local level. This article was helpful for me to focus on including the issue of cyberterrorism in my survey questions for my Thesis topic.


Pang, Augustine; Yan, Jin; & Cameron, Glen T. (2006). Do we stand on common ground? A threat appraisal model for terror alerts issued by the department of homeland security. Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management. Vol. 14 Issue 2, pp. 82-96. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=778d61f5-df4a-4727-932b-746d9e0db50e%40sde-v-sessmgr02.

This scholarly journal article was written and researched by Augustine Pang, Ph.D. candidate at the Missouri School of Journalism at the University of Missouri-Columbia; Yan Jin, Assistant Professor, School of Mass Communications at Virginia Commonwealth University; and Glen T. Cameron, Professor and Maxine Wilson Gregory Chair in Journalism Research at the Missouri School of Journalism at the University of Missouri-Columbia, where they studied terrorist threats and how fast and efficient communication of terrorist threats occurred using a threat appraisal model (2006). They tested their model over time monitoring terror threat alerts issued by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, paying close attention to how those threats were perceived by both conservatives and liberal groups. Their findings indicated DHS and conservatives agreed on threat levels and threat natures; liberals were not in agreement. However, conservatives and liberals agreed that threat communication could be improved and be more effective (2006).

This article provided valuable insights into the issue of the need for more effective communication in reference to terrorist threats and terrorist threat alerts being communicated effectively between government agencies and the general population of the United States. This information will help me to include questions about effective communications between our agency and local government agencies during a terrorist threat to Homeland Security.


Schneidewind, Norman F. (2006). Cyber trust model with application to the electric grid. International Journal of Reliability, Quality, & Safety Engineering. Vol. 13 Issue 6, pp. 527-545. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=0dadc-b889-49be-a75b-0f9a0a7be053%40pdc-v-sessmgr05.

This scholarly journal article was written and researched by Norman F. Schneidewind, IEEE Congressional Fellow, U.S. Senate 2005 Professor Emitus of Information Sciences and Software Engineering Naval Postgraduate School (2006). Schneidewind’s purpose was to create a multifaceted model that could indicate system vulnerabilities and expose anomalous system behavior (2006) because the goal is have confidence that system is reliable in delivering power for the consumer’s needs that is secure from cyber attacks in our networks that increasingly use the Internet to connect substation networks to the rest of the power grid (2006). Schneidewind felt that physical security is important however, there should be more emphasis on cyber security because while a physical terrorist attack could disable one facility, a cyber attack could disable multiple utilities because they are connected by the Internet (2006).

This article provided valuable insights into the importance of being prepared for terrorist cyber attacks and that I should focus some of my survey questions on the topic of cyber security preparedness in my Thesis topic.


Brown, Gerald; Carlyle, Matthew; Salmeron, Javier; & Wood, Kevin. (2006). Defending critical infrastructure. Interfaces: The Institute for Operations Research and the Management Sciences (INFORMS). Vol. 36 Issue 6, pp. 530-544. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=a5daa308-5d26-4aa8-841f-05adb633daca%40sessionmgr4007.

This scholarly journal article was written and researched by Gerald Brown, Matthew Carlyle, Javier Salmeron, and Kevin Wood, all of whom are with the Operational Research Department, Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California (2006). The authors apply multi-level optimization models to improve critical infrastructures more fortified against terrorist attacks. Each model had a terrorist attacker and a defender, the authors. They ran through various scenarios and report their findings to identify system vulnerabilities and propose adequate defenses (2006). Their research provided the following findings: The answers are not obvious; high-fidelity models are achievable; heuristics and rules of thumb are useful, but not for identifying vulnerabilities; reliability is not the answer; the attacker has the advantage; the data are available to everyone; some systems are naturally robust, while others are not; hardening infrastructure from attack can be expensive; an appropriate level of redundancy or reorganization could be expensive; and secrecy and deception can be valuable (2006). “We face a determined, intelligent enemy who seeks to cause us maximum harm. Worst case analysis using optimization is crucial to a credible assessment of infrastructure vulnerability and for planning mitigating actions.” (Brown, Carlyle, Salmeron, and Wood, 2006).

This article provided valuable insights into what it takes to defend our critical infrastructures in the United States, which is useful in applying to my Thesis topic survey questions.


Protic, Danijela D. (2016). Critical infrastructures: Threats, vulnerabilities, and protection. Military Technical Courier. Vol. 64 Issue 3, pp. 812-837. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=4of71692-ac7a-495f-9801-138f266bbc28%40pdc-v-sessmgr03.

This scholarly journal article was written and researched by Danijela D. Protic, who worked on the General Staff of the Serbian Army, Department for Telecommunication and Informatics at the Center for Applied Mathematics and Electronics in Belgrade, Republic of Serbia (2016). This article addresses six critical infrastructure sectors: supply, information telecommunication infrastructure, traffic and transportation, transport and storage of hazardous substances, manufacturing, energy sources supply, and electric power systems. The causes of undesired incidents due to human error, natural disasters, technical faults, and accidents are given (2016). Protic’s research produced the following findings: There are two types of threats to critical infrastructures; physical threats and cyber-attacks. Critical Infrastructure vulnerabilities are determined by their functions. Protecting critical infrastructures is determined by its threats and vulnerabilities. It is important for risk assessments to be conducted and that all employees are trained properly (2016).

This article provided insights into critical infrastructures, threats, vulnerabilities, and protection and reinforced my Thesis topic and belief that risk assessments must be conducted and that employees must be trained properly.


Reddick, Christopher G. (2007). Homeland security preparedness and planning in u s city governments: A survey of city managers. Journal of Contingencies & Crisis Management. Vol. 15 Issue 3, pp. 157-167. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=b6f5b6ee-c491-act-7-a0a09cf9e058%40sdc-v-sessmgr03.

This scholarly journal article was written and researched by Christopher G. Reddick with the Department of Public Administration at the University of Texas at San Antonio (2007). Reddick researched homeland security preparedness within US city governments by surveying city managers in reference to their opinions on the then current status of homeland security. Reddick’s survey research indicated good cooperation and collaboration between city governments and the other levels of government in the areas of support, planning, and preparedness against homeland security threats. However, Reddick’s research survey also indicated few city managers were using performance systems to increase their accountability within the scope of homeland security and that 32 percent of surveyed city managers that responded viewed the color-coded homeland security advisory system implemented by the federal government felt it was effective. Reddick’s research survey also indicated the city managers that responded noted concerns regarding insufficient money and personnel when it came to their homeland security preparedness (2007).

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This article provided valuable insights and further reinforced the findings in other articles I reviewed that common issues facing agencies are a lack of sufficient funding and a lack of sufficient personnel to adequately prepare for threats to homeland security at various levels of local government and that I should dedicate some of my Thesis topic survey questions to the issues of insufficient finances and insufficient personnel in regards to homeland security preparedness.


Kemp, Roger L. (2004). Homeland security: A local perspective. Spectrum: Journal of State Government. Vol. 77 Issue 2, pp. 21-25. Retrieved from http://eds.a.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=a3328352-1-c2a-436a-90a4-9cab01ed0ca9%40sdc-v-sessmgr01.

This scholarly journal article was researched and written by Roger L. Kemp, who is a former city manager on the East and West Coasts and at the time of this article was a city manager in Meriden, Connecticut and has a Ph.D. in public administration and is a graduate of the Program for Senior Executives in State and Local Government at Harvard University, and is also the author of several books on topics related to local government (2004). Kemp’s research indicated that state and federal government agencies have made great progress in homeland security preparedness since the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, and that county and city managers are on the frontline influencing this progress. Kemp’s research indicated that federal and state government leadership is crucial, the successful future of homeland security is dependent upon preparedness actions on the local level because they are the first responders to any terrorist threat to homeland security (2004).

This article provided valuable insights and further reinforced the common theme in several other articles I have reviewed that homeland security preparedness on the local level is paramount in preventing and responding to terrorist threats against our nation.


Meyerhoff, Donald. (2019). Protection of office buildings and spaces: A balanced approach to perception of terrorism risk in the common workspace. Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning. Vol. 13 Issue 1, pp. 67-80. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c5d33055-995f-4f3d-bccf-e3bb5f38d220%40pdc-v-sessmgr04.

This scholarly journal article journal article was researched and written by Donald Meyerhoff, currently a national level branch chief with a federal agency that is responsible for protection of critical assets, employees, and facilities. He has been an adjunct professor with the American Military University School of Security and Global Studies for the last ten years. He is a Certified Protection Professional and Physical Security Professional with ASIS International, and a Certified Security Program Manager with the Security Industry Association (2019).

Meyerhoff’s research indicated that office buildings and spaces are considered soft targets because they for the most part are not fortified or as secure as hardened targets with adequate security preparedness measures in place. His research also indicated that terrorists were increasingly targeting soft targets because they are easier to attack than hardened and fortified targets, and because office buildings and spaces usually contain large amounts of defenseless people. His research findings indicated a need for increased diligence in preparedness for homeland security threats in the private sector in order to secure office buildings and spaces from terrorist attacks (2019).

This article offered further insights and reinforced data found in other articles of the need for more training, financial assistance, and specialized equipment in the private sector and local level to increase homeland security threat preparedness.


Kemp, Roger L. (2012). Homeland security in america: Past, present, and future. World Future Review. (World Future Society). Vol. 4 Issue 1, pp. 28-33. Retrieved from http://eds.b.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=1&sid=4bc8c965-d503-4478-8eb5-3cc600a2497d%40pdc-v-sessmgr03.

This scholarly journal article was researched and written by Roger L. Kemp, Ph.D. Dr. Kemp is a career city manager who served in Connecticut, New Jersey, and California. He is also the editor of Homeland Security: Best Practices for Local Government (International City/County Management Association, 2010). Dr. Kemp has served on the United States Department of Justice Anti-Terrorism Advisory Council and was appointed by the Governor to the Homeland Security Working Group in the State of Connecticut (2012).

Dr. Kemp’s article discusses the history of the Department of Homeland Security and the progress that has been made in assisting citizens at the local level to be more prepared to respond to threats against homeland security. Dr. Kemp discusses Citizen Assistance and Support Groups such as: Citizen Corps, Community Emergency Response Teams, Fire Corps, USAon Watch, Medical Rescue Corps, Volunteers in Police Services, Corporation for National and Community Service, and InfraGard (2012). Dr. Kemp’s research indicated that on every level government officials rely increasingly upon information reported by alert private citizens. Dr, Kemp felt this activity is vital to successfully preventing terrorist attacks nationwide in the future (2012).

This article provided insights into the progress that has been made since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, by the Department of Homeland Security; specifically, by now providing assistance to, and working with, private citizens more to better prepare for terrorist attacks against Homeland Security on the local level.

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