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Relationships Between Parenting Style And Self Reliance Psychology Essay

A search of literature in Malaysia has revealed a gap in knowledge of measurement among student in University Putra Malaysia (UPM) student’s parenting style on personal and self-reliance. The relationships between parenting style and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent may be challenging question in a multi-racial country where parenting style typology has been one of the most extensively researched within the area of parenting. Authoritative parenting style refers to child-rearing techniques in which parents maintain a balance between love and affection for the children and exercising firm discipline. They expect appropriate levels of discipline and behavior, but are willing to explain reasons behind rules and value the child’s point of view.

Authoritarian parenting style refers to child-rearing techniques in which parents tend to be strict, harsh, and have an absolute set of standards to which children must conform. These parents typically demand obedience, and there is little verbal give-and-take within the family setting. Permissive parenting style refers to child-rearing techniques in which parents place very few rules or restrictions on their children. Children of permissive parents have almost complete freedom or control over their own decisions and activities.

Specifically, authoritative style has repeatedly been found to be correlated with positive selfperceptions while authoritarian style has repeatedly been found to be correlated with negative self-perceptions. Authoritative parenting style of the mother has also been found to be positively associated with connected knowing, which is defined as the ability for empathic concern, perspective-taking, and the tendency to be sensitive to the behavior of others.

Children and adolescents from permissive or unengaged families report a higher frequency of substance abuse, misconduct, and are less engaged and less positively oriented to school compared to their counterparts from authoritative or authoritarian families. Similarly, Adalbjarnardottir and found that adolescents who perceived their parents as neglectful used more licit and illicit drugs compared to adolescents who perceived their parents as authoritative. Permissive parenting has also been associated with low self-esteem, less persistence on learning tasks, low tolerance for frustration, and extrinsic motivational orientation. Although the beneficial effects of the authoritative style have consistently been demonstrated for European Americans, these effects have not always been found for ethnic minorities.

For example, Baumrind (1972) found a positive relationship between authoritarian parenting style and preschoolers’ prosocial maturity for a sample of African-American families. More recently, Park and Bauer (2002) investigated the relationship between parenting practices and academic achievement of high school students. Hence, there has been some debate about whether these parenting styles have similar outcomes for children and adolescents who are not of European descent.

Growing up in a comforting home and experiencing a stable and secure relationship with one’s parents is an important prerequisite for socialization (Vandeleur, Perrez, & Schoebi, 2007). Parsons (1955) defined the family as the ”factory where personality is made”. The vehicle through which the parents’ attitudes are experienced is parenting style. According to Darling and Steinberg (1993), parenting styles are the parents’ perceivable attitudes towards the child, and these styles create an emotional climate in which the parents’ behavior is expressed. Krohne (1988) defined parenting styles as a set of relatively stable behaviors through which parents interact with their child in relatively specific situations, thus emphasizing that parents may show a relatively uniform set of behaviors in a given context.

For example, a parent with low degree of support will not encourage his or her child to help with the housework, nor to achieve academic grades. In contrast, a parent with a high degree of support will give positive and encouraging feedback to his or her child regardless of whether the child has finished homework or is engaged in other activities such as challenging sports activities or making music. Similarly, Wagner, Cohen, and Brook (1996) emphasized that adolescents with perceived warm parenting style were less likely to suffer from symptoms of depression after stressful life events than adolescents who reported more rejecting and reproaching parenting styles. Krohne and Pulsack’s (1995) Parenting Style and self-reliance provide a good basis for concrete interventions and counseling; therefore, we applied the Parenting Style and self-reliance in our research.

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1.2 Statement of Problems

This study aim to determain the relationships between parenting style and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent. Specifically, this study will identify the personal related to parenting style and self-reliance i.e. adolescents characteristics (age and gender) and parents marital Status(married, divorced, separated, and widowed). In addition to it, the study determines the relationships between the personal characteristics with parenting style and self-reliance. Which authoritarian parenting is almost always associated with negative outcomes, both authoritative and authoritarian parenting appear to be associated with some positive adolescent outcomes with Asian adolescents depending on the variables of interest. The ways in which family members relate to each other are primarily a reflection of culture. The importance of parental control and monitoring of children’s behaviors, while providing parental involvement, concern, and support. Training emphasizes obedience, self-discipline, and the need to do well in University Putra Malaysia.

Research Question:

There are some research questions that become the main indicator in this study?

How the parenting styles can influence on personal and social variables for Asian Adolescents?

To what extent are parenting styles related to self-reliance for Asian Adolescent.

1.3 Significance of the study

The significance of this study are examine the effects of parenting style on the following four personal and social variables such as self-reliance, interpersonal relations, sense of inadequacy, and negative attitude to school, after controlling for the effects of self-esteem in a sample of Asian adolescents. The relationship between self-esteem and variables such as confidence, autonomy or self-reliance, and the ability to interact well with others, is well established in the research literature. For example, Brockner et al. (1998) found individuals high in self-esteem to be more confident, more self-reliant, and have a greater tendency to believe that they are able to provide meaningful input into a decision-making process. This is what we need to prove when we study the relationship between parenting styles and self-reliance among students in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM), Serdang.

Self-esteem has also been found to be strongly negatively correlated with neuroticism and strongly positively correlated with extraversion of the Big Five (Furr & Funder, 1998; Watson, Suls, Hiag, 2002). More importantly, self-esteem has been conceptualized as a resource that promotes successful adaptation during adolescence (Compas, Hinden, & Gerhardt, 1995; Sandler & Twohey, 1998). Favorable views of the self, as an internal asset, appear to be valuable in helping young adolescents’ emotional and behavioral adjustment (DuBois et al., 2002). Self-esteem appears to account for substantial variance in explaining the personal and social variables of interest in this study. Hence, in the present study, the researcher was interested in investigating the effect or the contribution of parenting style over and above the variance accounted for by self-esteem.

Four dependent variables were examined: two focusing on positive adolescent outcomes (self-reliance and interpersonal relations), and two focusing on negative adolescent outcomes (sense of inadequacy and attitude to school). Adolescents’ perception of both parenting style of mother and father were expected to significantly predict all four dependent variables even after controlling for adolescents’ self-esteem. Gender and ethnic differences were also explored. Specifically, based on parenting style research reviewed earlier, authoritative parenting style was expected to be associated with more adaptive and better adolescent adjustment.

However, in an Asian context, authoritarian parenting style could take on a different perceived meaning and may not consistently be related to poorer adolescent adjustment.

We targeted undergraduates in UPM to evaluate the perception of educated personnel on parenting styles attitudes. The prevalence of this attitude affects the society in a negative way but we need something of a concrete finding to evaluate the situation. This research is done to evaluate the of parenting styles of UPM undergraduates and how it affects their well-being. The result of this study is very important as an indication of the state of parenting styles behavior this small group of community possesses. The result is important for corrective measures if the findings are unfavorable.

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Thus, this study will give a good indication on the level of parenting stlyes and how it affects the self-reliance of student in UPM thus giving a right insight on the Economics and Management and Faculty Human Ecology. The advantage of SRM is it ensures a high degree of representativeness of all the strata in the population. First, we need to choose which types of stratified random sampling (SRM). There have 2 types of SRM which is proportionate SRM and Non- Proportionate SRM. In UPM has 15 faculties and we will choose 2 of 15 which is Faculty Economics and Management and Faculty Human Ecology. After that, we will categories our sample into 2 groups which is male and female. We also decide to take 100 respondents from each faculty. From the 100 respondents, we are using Non- Proportionate SRM, so we will choose 50 male students and female students.

A total of 200 undergraduate university students at University Putra Malaysia from various ethnic will take part in this study conducted. They are from second to forth years in university age that come from Faculty Economics and Management and Faculty Human Ecology. Their ages are ranged from 18 to 25 years old. The study will include 100 female students and 100 male students as according to the proportion of male and female.

1.4 Conceptual framework

AV

Parents Marital Status

Married

divorced

Separated

Widowed

IV DV

Self-reliance for Asian Adolescents

Parenting styles

Adolescents Characteristics

Gender

age

Main Objective

This study aims to determine relationship between parenting style and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent

Specific Objectives:

To describe parents marital status (married, divorced, separated, widowed) among students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To describe adolescent characteristics (gender, age) of the students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To describe parenting style of the students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To describe self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To determine relationship between parents married and parenting style of the students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To determine relationship between parents divorced and parenting style of of the students in University Putra Malaysia, Serdang.

To determine relationship between parents separated and parenting style of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parents widowed and parenting style of the respondents.

To compare different between adolescents gender and parenting style of the respondents.

To determine relationship between adolescents age and parenting style of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parents married and self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parents divorced and self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parents separated and self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parents widowed and self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the respondents.

To compare different between adolescent gender and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent of the respondents.

To determine relationship between adolescents age and self-reliance for Asian Adolescent of the respondents.

To determine relationship between parenting style and self-reliance for Asian Adolescents of the respondents.

To explore what factors uniquely predict self-reliance for Asian Adolescent.

To explore what factor uniquely predict parenting style.

To explore what factor uniquely predict child cognition Developments.

Hypothesis

There is no significant different between married and parenting style.

There is no significant different between divorced and parenting style.

There is no significant different between separated and parenting style.

There is no significant different between widowed and parenting style.

There is no significant different between age and parenting style.

There is no significant different between gender and parenting style.

Definition of Terminology

Conceptual definition

This study aims to determine relationship between quality of parenting styles and self- relience for Asian Adolescents.

Operational definition

This is measured by looking at the extent self- reliance for Asian Adolescents influenceses with parenting styles.

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1.6.1 Parenting style

Conceptual definition

Parenting style is meant to describe normal variations in parenting. In other words, the parenting style typology developed should not be understood to include deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive or neglectful homes.

Operational definition

Responses to each of these items were made on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). A high score indicates a high level of that particular parenting style.

1.6.2 Self- reliance

Conceptual definition

Self reliance means to depend on yourself. Humans spend quite a bit of their life depending on other people, such as family members, and self reliance is the time in their life when they stop.

Operational definition

A high score on the Self-Reliance subscale represents positive personal adjustment in terms of being willing to take responsibility, to make decisions, and to face life’s challenges. Subscales were administered for self-reliance is 7 items.

1.6.3 Self-Esteem

Conceptual definition

Self-esteem is a term used in psychology to reflect a person’s overall evaluation or appraisal of his or her own worth. Self-esteem encompasses beliefs and emotions such as triumph, despair, pride and shame.

Operational definition

The 10-item Rosenberg Self- Esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) is one of the most widely used scales for measuring global self-esteem.

1.7 Limitation of study

The current study focused only on factors (i.e., parenting style, personal, social variables, and Asian adolescents). This study was base on a big sample in Faculty of Human Ecology and Faculty of Economic and Management of University Putra Malaysia(UPM). The case study some student of University Putra Malaysia(UPM) consist of this size also big, it wills the result of a study to show exact. This case is limited on the effects of parenting style on child or adolescent outcomes among Asians. Location this case, at student of University Putra Malaysia(UPM). The case take from student classes participated in the study. The technique used this research is it passive consent procedure was used to obtain adolescents’ participation from parents. Data collection is typically granted by the building principal .All students voluntarily participated in the study. All from student give the form a questionnaire. This form was in English.

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

Parenting is a complex activity that includes many specific behaviors that work individually and together to influence child outcomes. Although specific parenting behaviors, such as spanking or reading aloud, may influence child development, looking at any specific behavior in isolation may be misleading. Many writers have noted that specific parenting practices are less important in predicting child wellbeing than is the broad pattern of parenting.

Most researchers who attempt to describe this broad parental milieu rely on Diana Baumrind’s concept of parenting style. The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents’ attempts to control and socialize their children (Baumrind, 1991). Two points are critical in understanding this definition. First, parenting style is meant to describe normal variations in parenting. In other words, the parenting style typology Baumrind developed should not be understood to include deviant parenting, such as might be observed in abusive or neglectful homes. Second, Baumrind assumes that normal parenting revolves around issues of control. Although parents may differ in how they try to control or socialize their children and the extent to which they do so, it is assumed that the primary role of all parents is to influence, teach, and control their children.

Parenting style captures two important elements of parenting: parental responsiveness and parental demandingness (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Parental responsiveness (also referred to as parental warmth or supportiveness) refers to “the extent to which parents intentionally foster individuality, self-regulation, and self-assertion by being attuned, supportive, and acquiescent to children’s special needs and demands” (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). Parental demandingness (also referred to as behavioral control) refers to “the claims parents make on children to become integrated into the family whole, by their maturity demands, supervision, disciplinary efforts and willingness to confront the child who disobeys” (Baumrind, 1991, pp. 61-62).

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2.1 Parenting Styles

Categorizing parents according to whether they are high or low on parental demandingness and responsiveness creates a typology of four parenting styles: indulgent, authoritarian, authoritative, and uninvolved (Maccoby & Martin, 1983). Each of these parenting styles reflects different naturally occurring patterns of parental values, practices, and behaviors (Baumrind, 1991) and a distinct balance of responsiveness and demandingness.

Indulgent parents (also referred to as “permissive” or “nondirective”) “are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation” (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). Indulgent parents may be further divided into two types: democratic parents, who, though lenient, are more conscientious, engaged, and committed to the child, and nondirective parents.

Authoritarian parents are highly demanding and directive, but not responsive. “They are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation” (Baumrind, 1991, p. 62). These parents provide well-ordered and structured environments with clearly stated rules. Authoritarian parents can be divided into two types: nonauthoritarian-directive, who are directive, but not intrusive or autocratic in their use of power, and authoritarian-directive, who are highly intrusive.

Authoritative parents are both demanding and responsive. “They monitor and impart clear standards for their children’s conduct. They are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. Their disciplinary methods are supportive, rather than punitive. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative”(Baumrind, 1991, p. 62).

Uninvolved parents are low in both responsiveness and demandingness. In extreme cases, this parenting style might encompass both rejecting-neglecting and neglectful parents, although most parents of this type fall within the normal range because parenting style is a typology, rather than a linear combination of responsiveness and demandingness, each parenting style is more than and different from the sum of its parts (Baumrind, 1991).

In addition to differing on responsiveness and demandingness, the parenting styles also differ in the extent to which they are characterized by a third dimension: psychological control. Psychological control “refers to control attempts that intrude into the psychological and emotional development of the child” (Barber, 1996, p. 3296) through use of parenting practices such as guilt induction, withdrawal of love, or shaming.

One key difference between authoritarian and authoritative parenting is in the dimension of psychological control. Both authoritarian and authoritative parents place high demands on their children and expect their children to behave appropriately and obey parental rules. Authoritarian parents, however, also expect their children to accept their judgments, values, and goals without questioning. In contrast, authoritative parents are more open to give and take with their children and make greater use of explanations.

Thus, although authoritative and authoritarian parents are equally high in behavioral control, authoritative parents tend to be low in psychological control, while authoritarian parents tend to be high.

2.1.1 Factors Relating to Parenting Styles

2.1.1.1 Parenting Styles and Parents Marital Status

Marital status have emphasized as a socially and demographically important variable first and foremost because in Western populations marriage has in the past, if less so today, signified the formation of a new family unit and the start of socially approved childbearing. Those who are currently married have potential support in the form of a spouse, which the unmarried lack, and those who have ever-married are far more likely than the never-married to have a child or children. Spouses, children, and grandchildren are providers of emotional support and companionship, as well as practical help, and so may contribute substantially to the well-being and quality of life of the oldest-old. In this paper we examine several dimensions of the marital status and family support of the British population2 aged 80 and over or 85 and over.

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Firstly consider the current and future marital status distribution of the oldest-old population. In this section we also present some information on trends in the availability of at least one child, based on existing empirical data and projections of the proportion of women with no, one, and two or more children under various mortality assumptions. One of the important influences of marital status in later life is its strong effect on living arrangements. The second section of the paper deals with the household characteristics of those aged 85 and over and with transitions between different types of household. In the third section we examine associations between marital status and household type and perceived social support.

A discussion of the implications of for results for the future. In the older population the proportions married depend not just on historical nuptiality rates, but also on past rates of marital breakdown and, importantly, on the incidence and duration of widowhood. This it will be determined by sex differentials in mortality, age differences between husbands and wives, and the extent of remarriage. Several, if not all, of these parameters have changed over time with consequent changes in the marital status distribution of the population.

Published official projections by marital status use ages 75 and over as the open ended band (Shaw and Haskey 1999; National Statistics 2005), although recently projections with 90 and over as the open-ended band have been made available at http://www.gad.gov.uk/marital status projections. Changing mortality and marriage experiences might be expected to lead to different patterns among the oldest old cohorts and, of course, the supply and demand for care varies substantially according to marital status. Therefore undertook our own projections of the marital status of those ages 85 and over by single year of age up to 2035. On based projection on the joint distribution of partners’ ages from the 1991 Census of England and Wales. These values were then updated to 2001 to make them consistent with the 2001 marital status projections for England and Wales using an Iterative Proportional Fitting (IPF) algorithm approach (Murphy and Wang, 1999).

2.1.1.2 Parenting Styles and Adolescents Characteristics

The approach of examining individual differences is typical of emerging areas of psychological inquiry, and it has its advantages; however, it is an insufficient approach where homelessness is concerned, because homelessness is clearly a social phenomenon involving transactions between the individual and his or her social context (Shinn, 1992; Toro, Trickett,Wall, & Salem, 1991). Second, research concerning homelessness has, with few exceptions, not been applied to the development of empirically based interventions. After a discussion of definitions of the different groups of people who are homeless commonly studied in the literature, we will review the literature on homelessness as it presently stands, by first briefly touching on the literature on adult homelessness to provide a reference point, and then considering in more detail the literatures on adolescents who are homeless on their own and on families that are homeless. Next, we will summarize the weaknesses of these research literatures and identify several theoretical approaches that are beginning to be applied. Next, we will evaluate these approaches and propose a broad ecological-developmental perspective that may be useful in integrating them and guiding future research. Finally, we will suggest directions for intervention and policy, with a special emphasis on present efforts to apply broad developmental and ecological frameworks to inform program development.

2.2 Self-reliance

Through their obedience they learn the discipline and self-reliance that is necessary to meet life’s challenges. This self-discipline develops in them strong moral character. Love and nurturance are a vital part of family life, but they should never outweigh parental authority, which is itself an expression of love and nurturance – tough love. As children mature, the virtues of respect for moral authority, self-reliance, and self-discipline allow them to incorporate their father’s moral values. In this way they incorporate their father’s moral authority they become self-governing and self-legislating (Lakoff & Johnson (1999), pp. 313-314).

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This contradicts previous research that authoritarian parenting is most common in Asian Americans. Researchers believe this may be due to changes in parenting practice over time with increased exposure to the host culture for Korean American college students (Kim, 2003). Although the detrimental effects of authoritarian parenting are not as evident in Asian Americans as in European Americans and other minority groups, the overall pattern of the relationship between parenting style and adolescent development is similar, particularly with regard to the benefits of authoritative parenting. Across racial and ethnic groups, adolescents raised by authoritative parents reported higher levels of self-reliance and school performance, fewer psychological problems and less involvement in delinquency in comparison with those from nonauthoritative homes (Dombusch, 1990).

Although not as clear, the parent who fosters an ambiguous attachment may also mirror permissive parenting. For example, the permissive parent is generally described as lax, and inconsistent, and use withdrawal of love as punishment (Connor, 1980). They also tend to show their ambivalence about discipline by alternating praise and punishment (Baumrind, 1967). Similarly, mothers of ambivalently attached children are described as lacking in responsiveness and sensitivity to their children, and as being either too lenient or too controlling of their child (Egeland & Farber, 1984). Baumrind (1967) reported that children of permissive parents have low self-control and self-reliance, and are very immature while ambivalently attached children are described as anxious, immature (Karen, 1998), and show little initiative (Egeland & Farber, 1984).

2.2.1 Factors Relating to Self-reliance

2.2.1.1 Self-reliance and Parents Marital Status

Over the past four decades, the patterns of family structure have changed dramatically in the United States. An increase in the numbers and proportion of children born outside of marriage and a rise in divorce rates have contributed to a three-fold increase in the proportion of children growing up in single-parent families since 1960.

These changes have generated considerable public concern and controversy, particularly about the effects of these changes on the well-being of children. Over the past 20 years, a body of research has developed on how changes in patterns of family structure affect children. Most researchers now agree that together these studies support the notion that, on average, children do best when raised by their two married, biological1 parents who have low-conflict relationships. This research has been cited as justification for recent public policy initiatives to promote and strengthen marriages.

However, findings from the research are often oversimplified, leading to exaggeration by proponents of marriage initiatives and to skepticism from critics. While the increased risks faced by children raised without both parents are certainly reason for concern, the majority of children in single-parent families grow up without serious problems. In addition, there continues to be debate about how much of the disadvantages to children are attributable 2 to poverty versus family structure, as well as about whether it is marriage itself that makes a difference or the type of people who get married.

2.2.1.2 Self-reliance and Adolescents Characteristics

In addition to its enormity in absolute terms, recent multinational comparisons have suggested that the United States may surpass much of the developed world in lifetime prevalence of homelessness, perhaps by a considerable margin (Tompsett et al., 2003; Toro et al., 2004). Homelessness in this country has persisted despite considerable concern expressed by the public

and media regarding the problem, as well as substantial public funding levied to combat it on the federal, state, and local levels (the well-known federal McKinney Act alone has been providing about $1.5 billion annually for services assisting homeless peo- ple;Toro&Warren, 1999). Furthermore, despite good economic times during most of the 1990s, the most recent prevalence estimates suggest that homelessness has not been decreasing (Burt et al., 2001; Ouellette & Toro, 2002; Tompsett et al., 2004).

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