Phisical activity for children
This report provides information about the key benefits of physical activity for children in two categories of age 2-6 and 6-11 years old. This report will present of areas of development of the above age stages, which contained: physical, intellectual, skill, and psychological/social/emotional.
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Physical development is a process that begins in the human childhood and lasts until late adolescents focuses on the ability of gross and fine motor, and maturation. Physical development involves developing control over the body, especially the muscles and motor coordination.
Intellectual development is best defined as the child’s ability to think and understand the world. The way in which the child takes and processes information related to carers and experiencing the effects of the world in all areas of development.
Stages of Development Children Aged 2-6
Physical development of children of preschool age is slower and more stable than in infancy, however remains dramatic. Some important factors affecting the physical development during the preschool include changes in the child’s brain, gross and fine motor skills and health. Toddlers soon acquire the leaner, more athletic look associated with childhood, as the children around age 3 begin to lose their baby fat. The child’s body and legs grow longer and make your abdominal muscles, tightening the abdominal appearance. However, even at this early stage of children life, boys have more muscle mass than girls. From age 2 to 6 physical proportions continue to change, as their heads are getting smaller, but they are still larger than the school children’s. Also, head proportion from large is changing to the body even out, what have an impact on the balance but that improve coordination.
The using of energy system is less efficient than adults, what can be notices during exercise that the children breath heavier, sweats more and also heart rate is faster than the adults. The hot or cold environment has a much bigger impact than on adults too. As they are suffer more from overheating, becoming too cold, but also dehydrating. The energy system is affected by not fully developed aerobic system, as the oxygen can be supply a fraction of required by the working muscles. Young children are not able to exercise in high intensity, because their anaerobic system is still not fully developed.
At this stage, babies eventually enable to cope with separation from parents. Language develops as children grow into toddlers and their world expands. Symbolic understanding and appear pretend play skills there. Children begin to work on their experience, such as feeding a doll or a car.
In the preschool years, children expand their understanding of pre-academic skills. They learn to identify colours, shapes, numbers, and letters. They also begin to demonstrate phonemic awareness. Some children may even begin to read familiar sight words as they reach age five. Pre-schoolers also develop more elaborate symbolic and cooperative play. For example, peers work together to act out a theme such as playing house, with each player having a defined role.
Motor skills are physical abilities or capacities. Gross motor skills involves the use of large body movements, and this includes running, jumping, jumping, turning, jumping, throwing, balancing and dance. Fine motor skills, which include drawing, writing, and tying shoelaces, involve the use of small bodily movement Motor fine skills involves the use of a small body movements, such as drawing, writing, and tying shoelaces, involve the use of a small body movements. Both above skills are develop and are refined in early childhood, but the motor skills develop more slowly in preschool. The comparison of the running abilities of a 2â€yearâ€old and a 6â€yearâ€old, will show the limited running skills of the 2â€yearâ€old. But when compare the trying shoelaces of 2 and 6 year old the difference will be even more striking. The 2â€yearâ€old has difficulty grasping the concept before ever attempting or completing the task.
For this age group, any physical activity is indicated, i.e. including both forms of light physical exercises, as well as, more vibrant and energetic suggestions. Providing children with adequate physical activity and game play is an important step to developing their physical fitness, which not only promotes the health of young children but significantly enhances their psychological development and social skills in the long run. It is evident that physical activity is essential to the whole-person development of young children. For young children, the amount of physical activity is more important than the intensity. Physical activity can enhance the development of young children’s gross motor and fine motor skills, and to foster their good health habits and self-care ability. Therefore, physical activity of any intensity level should be covered, e.g. daily activities of light intensity such as slow walking and packing school bags, activities of moderate intensity such as cycling, stair climbing or engaging in teacher-led large-muscle activity sessions, and even activities of vigorous intensity such as chasing and running around, dancing, swimming etc. engaged after school. Of course, activity of a higher intensity can enhance cardio-respiratory fitness and stimulate bone growth; it can also enhance their development of physical fitness and motor skills. For the maximum health benefit of young children, teachers can consider administering a suitable amount of higher intensity activity. As younger children’s leaders, teachers should give them ample opportunities to experience different kinds of physical activities within a safe environment. This is to train the young children’s fundamental motor skills, which are essential for them to cope with daily needs. Children may acquire better physical fitness and movement skills for participation in various sports activities in the future.
Stages of Development Children Aged 6-11
Children aged 6-11 experience many of physical changes occurring in their bodies. The coordination of arms and legs increases, also ability for use their fingers and hand in such things as crafts and writing improves. Furthermore, can be noticed the growth in interest in games with rules and organised sports.
LAM, P Y, 2011. Phisical Actvity. Phisical Actvity for Children Aged 2-6, [Online]. Available at: http://www.startsmart.gov.hk/files/pdf/02052012_physical-Eng-d.pdf [Accessed 13 March 2015].
Physical Development: Age 2–6.[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/psychology/development-psychology/physical-cognitive-development-age-26/physical-development-age-26. [Accessed 13 March 2015].
Babies and Young Children: Diploma in Child Care and Education – Jo Brewster, Pauline Jones – Google Books. 2015. [ONLINE] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk [Accessed 14 March 2015].
Table 1 Benefits of physical activity for young children
|BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY FOR YOUNG CHILDREN|
|Physical||Promoting the growth of muscles and bones • Promoting cardio-respiratory endurance • Enhancing immunity • Developing motor skills in preparation for engagement in sports activities in later years • Preventing chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes mellitus|
|Psychological||Building up self-confidence and self-esteem • Learning and building of sportsmanship • Enhancing willpower and perseverance • Shaping the sense of self-worth • Learning to control emotions • Relieving anxiety and pressure|
|Social||Strengthening communication and presentation skills • Promoting creativity and imagination • Developing a sense of responsibility • Learning to observe rules and respect others|
Table 2 Physiological signs and examples of physical activity by intensities
|Intensity||Physiological signs||Common activity examples|
|Light||Breathing rate and heart rate normal; able to talk as usual||Slow walking, playing toys, dressing up, grooming, packing school bag|
|Moderate||Noticeable increase in heart rate and breathing rate; able to talk in short sentences or word-by-word||Brisk walking, cycling, paddling, playing slides, swinging, circuit games, hopscotch, tossing balls|
|Vigorous||Significant increase in heart rate and breathing rate; difficult to talk with ease|