Intervention methodology can be used in various educational streams. It can be used for mathematics, science or language study. One can find problem in learning new languages, mathematics, and science or in any other subjects. One can use Intervention methodology for teaching this stuff to one who cannot learn it easily. Teacher can apply this Intervention Methodology via various styles (Anon., n.d.). It can be applied by teacher via teacher directed interventions, scaffolded interventions, responsive interventions or by a combination of teacher directed interventions, scaffolded interventions and responsive interventions. Teacher directed interventions are those where teacher gives a title, problem to students, helps in constructing way to achieve goal, and gives a response to students directly. Responsive interventions are those where interventions are done upon requirement of students. In this type teacher helps the students to make strategies, gives solution of students questions via questioning only. In this style of intervention students makes their own plan and strategy to achieve goal. Students use reference texts or create analogies to learn topic. It is a responsive invention. If the communication between student and teacher gives a scaffolded response, invention method becomes scaffolded and responsive. Responsive intervention approach is an alternative approach to common other approaches. This approach can give better outcomes if tried logically. Teacher can collect interventions that help students to study deeply, can help students to fulfill their learning needs and also help students to give good performance. Students who learn via basic style where teacher teaches them directly are less skilled than who learns via responsive interventions. Responsive interventions (Anon., n.d.) helps the students to learn self planning, can help students to make subject more interesting. For responsive intervention, one cannot plan that how will he / she teach. One cannot use what him or her plan. One can use trigger to try intervention differently where he or she needed to give particular case and needs to try to get response for that scenario. Here one needs to be contiguous. How to plan for contingency? One can teach students in more interesting way than another one just via using perfect timing of what to ask? For a different one can use scaffolded interventions too. Use of both responsive intervention and scaffolded interventions. Interventions are also depends on some other criteria too like student’s age and their pre-knowledge on topic and all. What is student’s average age? Some methods can be applicable for younger and some can applicable for older one only. For example, A primary school’s student needs to be questioning differently than of student of higher secondary school.
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For deployment of intervention methods one need to set particular environment (Anon., n.d.). What includes in arranging the environment? It includes structural facilities like good classroom. Good physical environment to provide comfort to students. This environmental change helps student to relate with situation. Social environment (Anon., n.d.) also needs to set according to students. One can also use funny comments or joke to make environment light and can start or continue communication effectively. Playing activities also can be used by teachers to make study more lubricate and interesting. One can sing songs to make atmosphere light. Teacher is supposed use predictable routine and daily routine activities. For responsive intervention one need to follow students’ lead. Student’s lead means in what student is interested, what he / she loves to do or on what topic he loves to talk. What is the need of following these leads? By following this, one can know where student is interested and via this one can respond to student easily. Student’s attention is a big thing in responsive intervention. Students are getting more interested in conversation when teacher follows their lead. One can use labeling and commenting for better outcomes. For commenting, first teacher is supposed to give specification and a particular label to each activity of student and then supposed to comment on that. The benefit of commenting is that student came to know that how well he / she performed. Student will give more responsive if teacher uses commenting and labeling technique. For building student’s vocabulary via responsive intervention technique one can use imitating and expanding methods. Imitating and Expanding is a technique where teacher asks students to imitate his /he words or teacher imitates student’s words. It will help students to pronounce words more clearly and will also help students to understanding the pronunciations of words. One can use open- ended questions to students. Open ended questions are like, “Who are you?”, “Where are you?”, “What are you doing?”, “How are you doing?”, “What is this?”, “Where it is?” and all. Students can give answers of these questions via one or two words too. So, it helps them to start communicating in new language. Teachers are also supposed to motivate students via praising their work, giving those rewards and via positive attitude. Positive attitude and motivation makes student feel more comfortable. Like if teacher poke student on back or praise his/ her work. So, student will pay more attention than before. One can motivate students via providing choices. Provide more than one activity to students. So that they can choose their favorite one and can enjoy it. Providing choices will encourage students to learn new things and to do communication continuously. It will help students to prefer topic, thing on which he / she wants to communicate. How to provide choices? To provide choices one can use rotation methods. He / she can rotate activities / things within classroom so that with help of less resort he / she can create more choices. One can make gap of few minutes within routine tasks. It will allow students to communicate. Give them playful tasks to do in between. Give them group activities.
One can uses these steps like “Instructional Match (Anon., n.d.), Scaffolding Step-by-Step Strategies, Modeling & Demonstration, and Performance Feedback, Opportunities to Drill & Practice to Strengthen Fragile Skills, Student ‘Talk-Through’ Activities, Periodic Review, and Progress Monitoring. Here instructional match is used to verify whether teachers are working at their best level and provide students more confidence and provide them success. Scaffolding is necessary for students to help in learning new things and become more advanced in that particular area. One can use many things to achieve it like giving fewer tasks to students. So that they can concentrate on that particular task / those particular tasks and masters in that task / s. One can divide students in groups so that they can share their knowledge and complete assignments. Step by step strategy: One can use / make strategies step by step for complex task so that task can be done simply and easily.
Modeling: Demonstrations and models can help students to learn things easily. It helps students to understand and implement content easily and correctly.
Performance review: Performance review is necessary after above tasks as performance review is only measurable thing where one can know who progressed how much?
After getting new skills and after sharpening that skills student can work independently and try new things. He / She can try these new skills and can strengthen them via applying it and by practicing those new skills. He / She (student) can practice hard on those things where he / she is interested and become expert of that and meanwhile enjoys that too.
Talk Through activities: After successfully completing learning task and sharpen those things by practicing teacher supposed to set up activities for students. Where teacher can ask students to do various talk through activities.
Periodic review: After students excelled in particular things, particular skill teacher is supposed to put learning process on next level, where he / she (student) can masters it. Meanwhile teacher is supposed to review his / her progress. So that teacher can know that whether he / she is going in right direction or not?
For teaching new language one can also use direct responsive intervention method. In this intervention method teacher is supposed to communicate / talk with students in new language only which they are supposed to learn. Via communicating formal things one can teach basic sentence to students in beginning. Like students were not aware of Italian Language. Students knows the name of the teacher. So, teacher can ask questions like my name is this, (Anon., n.d.)What is yours? “Il mio nome è This. Che cosa è il vostro? (Anon., n.d.) “. Here students cannot understand all these sentence but knows This is teacher’s name. So they assume that he / she was trying to tell his / her name. In addition to this students can also understand that the tone of last sentence was like of question. So they guess that teacher were trying to ask his / her name. So they (students) can answer like My name is Ray (Il mio nome è Ray). One can also tell that Good morning in very beginning of class like “buongiorno” . Here students don’t know the meaning of it but can surely assume that he / she gave morning wish or good wish. And can respond via imitating it. One can ask students “How are you? Via telling them “come stai?”. Here students won’t understand what teacher is trying to ask but then teacher can answer himself / herself “Io sto bene”. Students can understand little here or if they don’t. Teacher can use physical signs to teach them like pointing his / her hand toward black board and can say, “Si tratta di una lavagna”, (It is a blackboard). Here too students will not understand. But then teacher can try to point his / her finger on window and can say, “È una finestra” (it is a window), can point finger on door and can say, “È una porta” (it is a door). Here students can understand “È una” means nothing but It is. Teacher can try few new simple sentences later on. Like How are you doing?, How are you? , What are you doing? What am I doing, What we are doing?, What she is doing?, What principal is doing? In Italian language. “Come stai?, Come stai? , Che cosa stai facendo? Che cosa sto facendo, che cosa stiamo facendo?, Che cosa sta facendo?, Che cosa principale sta facendo?” . Here students can understand few basic words and able to respond them. Teacher can tell “bye bye , have agood day, see you” (bye bye avere una buona giornata) at the end of class.It is very interesting and quick learning technique. Here one who is teaches and one who is learning both can enjoy. Both can communicate with each other freely and both can feel comfortable after little time. Prospects of using this method is, it is quick, easy to implement and comfortable technique. In additon to this it technique can help the students to memorize words, sentences for long time, can help student in building vocabulary easily.The only disadvantage of this method is, in the starting phase students may get confused. Students may feel boarded or confused in early days as they don’t know much what was going. But a good teacher can overcome this problem via applying proper timing and gestures. So teachers and students all can enjoy study. Proper use of gestures and physical movement plays major part in success of this type of reference interventions. Teacher who use proper timing and gestures can use reference intervention more efficiently than who cannot use it. One can make subject more lucid and interesting with help of reference method. But if teacher don’t use it efficiently may be this reference intervention methodology won’t work as it supposed to be. It is not methodology’s failure but it is failure of particular teacher (Anon., n.d.). One can use Intervention methodology for language and other type of teaching too. For language teaching responsive intervention methodology and scaffolded interventions are mainly used due to their above described features and prospects. One can use both responsive intervention methodology and scaffolded intervention methodology at once. Means one can use a combination of both intervention methodologies responsive and scaffolded.
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