The aim of the study was to explore the mediating effects of job satisfaction on role overload and role conflicts as sources of stress and Affective commitment on the other hand. Using questionnaire, 150 banking employees in D.G.Khan were randomly selected and served for the purpose to examined the job satisfaction as the mediating role. Result finding that the Role overlod and role Conflict directly and negatively associated with job satiafaction.Another result was also conclude that the role overload and role conflict also negatively and direactly influence Affective commitment.Correlation test finding conclude that the job satisfaction partially mediate the effects of role conflict and role overload on Affective commitment.
Key words: Role overload, Role conflict, Job satisfaction, Affective commitment, Pakistan.
Banks play an essential role in economy of state. During a period of five years 2000-2005 the banking segment of Pakistan has been transformed into a speedy and competitive industry. Stress is a dynamic state in which person face an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which results are believed to be both vague and critical (Spector, 1997).Stress is the response of people to excessive pressure. Stress in universal differs from job or occupational stress (Montgomery et al., 1996). Job stress is any characteristic of the workplace that causes risk to the individual (Larson, 2004). In banking sector occupational stress occurs when the entity have lack of skills abilities and proper training to perform job successfully (Jamal, 1990).In Role Theory, researchers have focused on role conflict and role overload as the two key determinants of occupational stress. Role conflict refers to ‘the degree of inappropriateness of expectations related with a role. It is conducted with the lack of information needed to perform a role successfully. Role overload is stated as conflict between organizational demand and time which is given to individuals to meet those demands. It also includes excessive work that exceeds from individual’s capabilities and knowledge. Job satisfaction is defined as “an outlook or attitude that individuals have about their jobs. It results from the perception of employees about their job and good fit between employee and organization” (Ivancevich etal., 1997, p.91). Affective commitment is deliberate more efficient measure of organizational commitment since it ultimately influences the other two dimensions of organizational commitment (Boles et al.,2007). Affective commitment is more dependable with the conceptual and operational definition of attitudes (Iverson and Buttigieg, 1999). Employees with strong affective commitment to the organization perform well. It is positively related with job satisfaction and performance, and negatively associated with absenteeism and turnover, as well as occupational stress (Mathieu and Zajac, 1990). Another study depicts the link between stress with satisfaction and performance of employees that lower anxiety stress improves performance of employees at different managerial level of an organization (Ivancevich & Donnelly, 1975). According to the previous researches it seems that there is negative relationship between occupational stress and affective commitment (Omolara, 2008, Cooper & Bright, 1998). Job stress is dysfunctional in the sense that it effects to decreased job satisfaction and Affective commitment, and increased absenteeism and ambiguity (Kahn et al., 1964; Bedeian and Armenakis, 1981; Kemery et al., 1985; Schaubroeck et al., 1989). Role conflict and role overload as sources of stress are negatively associated with job satisfaction and various dimensions of organization commitment (Yousef, 2002b).
Clear gap exist due to unavailability of empirical data to understand the relationship between the occupational stress and affective commitment among bank employees in Pakistan. Such type of absence of knowledge seriously affect the bank manager ability to develop stress management strategies and promotion of affective commitment in banking sector which is major contribute to employment in Pakistan.This is the base of the research study which has not yet been conducted in Pakistan. A lot of work has been conducted outside Pakistan. Number of studies has been conducted in different area of world but a huge gap exists in third world countries like Pakistan. The purpose of this study is to examine the causes of occupational stress and the negative effects severe of job stress may have on both employees and organizations in employees of banking sector of Pakistan.
Statement of the problem
Several studies conducted on the occupational stress and organizational commitment. Review of literature exposed that great contract has been about the causes and adverse effect of occupational stress and importance of affective commitment for the understanding of organization and professional goals. However very little work is done on this relationship in banking sector of Pakistan. The previous research has been conducted mostly in the area of occupational stress related to dimentions like job satisfaction (Khan, 2005, Haider, 1986, Cochinwala $ Imran, 1987), personality characteristics (Khurshid, 2008) and motivation (Andrarbi, 2002, Mufi $ Hassan, 1965). The problem to be investigated is to, examine the relation between occupational stress and affective commitment in the banking sector of Pakistan. This study aims to get the level, causes and dimensions of occupational stress and forms of affective commitment of the bank employees in Pakistan.
Objectives of the study
To investigate the relationships between role stressors namely, role overload and role conflict, job satisfaction, and affective comitment.
To explore the mediating effects of job satisfaction on role overload and role conflict as causes of stress, on one hand, and affective commitment, on the other.
To investigate the negative relation ship between occupational stress and affective commitment.
What is the impact of role conflict on employee’s job satisfaction?
What is the impact of occupational stress on affective commitment?
What is impact of job satisfaction and affective commitment?
Significance of study
Occupational stress and affective commitment have long been concerns for employee and employees. Researches on occupational stress and organizational commitment have been conducted in western countries.The reason due to lack of studies conducted on the occupational stress and affective commitment in banking sector of Pakistan, it is questionanable whether western findings can be applied in the non western contex, like Pakistan.
This study is significant because it provide bank manager to better understand the occupational stressors inherent in the functions of their workforce.Also this study an understanding of the commitment process and its relation with occupational stress to support commitment among employees and achieve their organizational goals effectively.Bank employees can utilize the research findind to formulate suitable strategies to find stress related problem of their employees.Exploring and understanding this relationship in banking sector of Pakistan is going to be unique contribution of this study.
In literature rewiew the relevant researches,theories,and model related to occupational stress and affective commitment are discussed.This literature will provide the concept of occupational stress and affective commitment in the banking sector of Pakistan.
Stress the concept and phenomenon
In the past two decades research on stress and concept of stress concept reached high(Goldberger $ Breznitz, 1993).
Stress happens when any one feel pressure and the situation create when necessities are more then the recognition that are beyond their control and the result occur mental, physical problems,(Health $Safety Executive UK). The first time stress introduce into the life. Stress means tention, pressure whose impact on individual (Selye, 1936). Stress is an environmental force affecting individual performance (selye, 1956).stress has been seen as environmental incentive to an individual (Khan, 1964).Stress is general different from job stress (Montgomery, 1996). Stress is a forceful situation in w, demand or resource related to what the persons deals with an opportunity or deman that person need and for that outcomes are expected both for which results are supposed to be both unclear and critical (Specter, 1997). Stress place in every organization and that’s why due to stress organization becomes complex which directly impact on the performance of employees and affective commitment (R. Anderson, 2003)stress is to pressure . A vast and different fields literature exhibit a lot key factor such as work environment, management support, work overload determine the impact on physical and mental health (Ganster $ loghan, 2005).
Occupational stress has fulfilled a stress has fuelled a major many sided literature. Occupational stress occur when interaction of individuals and their characteristics of job , An important stream of literature starting with Beehr and Newman (1978) defined occupational stress as “A condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs/work and characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning. ). Job related stress make a difference between demand on families and the capability of families to provide material protection for them (McCubbin & Figley, 1983). When the individual doesn’t have the skills and abilities to perform the job effectively, then job stress occur and job stress also arise when there is no training and recourses are provided to him (Jamal, 1990). Russo cited Ricce who says , mental stress involves the employees. It’s a destructive ramification for organization includes trouble, hindrance in normal operations of organization and low productivity. It’s not a personal problem of a employee. The result of mental stress on an employee is three times more (Ricces, 1992). According to nature of organization stress is generally different from job stress (Montgomery et al., 1996). A study in UK indicated that when the employees have to work with extended hours and to cope with excess of work while meeting the production targets and deadlines then in such a situation majority of the workers felt unhappy with the current culture (Townley, 2000). Pressure in their work found to be one of the important factor influencing job stress (Chan et all., 2000). Job stress is any attribute of the workplace that causes threat to the individual (Larson,2004) Robbins divides stress into three factors which including environmental, organizational and individual factors. They come out as letdown, anxiety and mental conflicts (Robbins 2006, p. 953). Job stress one of term that is used to describe workplace related stress (Stranhan et al, 2008). In Great Britain stress is mentioned as the greatest factor influencing on the individual and also on decision to leave the service. It has result into an incremental signal of stress management in public sector (Goffey, Dugdill.Tattershal 2009:2).There is a higher stress level when an individual have lack of skillscapabilities on performing their job activities (Salo.Allwood.2011)
Managing role stress is very important. When it remained unsolved then it result in job dissatisfaction, low productivity, lower job performance, decrease in creativity and innovation. The traditional theory of role stress described that the job dissatisfaction, absenteeism and turnover intentions are directly caused by role stressors (Kahn et al., 1964, Bedeian and Armenakis, 1983; Kemery et al., 1985).Role stress means anything about an organizational role that produces undesirable result for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970).Role also related with how employees perceive expectations .It includes role ambiguity and role conflict (Alxenderos-Stamations et. al., 2003).
Role stressors include three distinct construct: role conflict, role ambiguity and role overload (Singh, 1998; Montgomery et al., 1996).In further researches have focused that two key determinants of role stress include role conflict and role ambiguity. According to Larson (2004) role conflict result from conflicting job demands such that conformity with one makes conformity with another difficult. Role conflict is defined in terms of a two dimensions compatibility-incompatibility (Rizoo et al., (1970), according to a set standard compatibility is judged. Role Ambiguity has been elaborated as the state in which there is lack of feedback, lack of a clear expectations from the role on performance (Aziz, 2004).According to Cord & Doughery (1993), Copper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambiguity exist when an individual lack information about the requirement of his job ,role assigned to him and how these roles are to met and to evaluate the procedure that make sure the role is being performed successfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997)studies found that role ambiguity lead to a negative result as reduce confidence , a sense of hopelessness ,concern and depression. Role overload can be classify into quantitative and qualitative overload (Fireman and Payne, 1981).Quantitative role overload is stated as a conflict between organizational demand and time which is given to individual to meet those demands (Bacharach et al., 1991;Larson,2004). Fireman and Payne elaborate qualitative role overload as a work as work that exceeds an individual’s capabilities, knowledge and abilities. In the literature the role overload and role conflict be likely to be used interchangeably when infect they are correlated but separate concepts (Kahan et al., 1964;Parasuraman and Alluto, 1984;Schaubroecket al.,1989; Coveman,1989;Montgomery et al., 1996).
There are some theories of occupational stress.Occupational stress theory one of the interactional (Cox, Griffiths, $ Dollared, 2003).
Intraactional theory related to stress focus on the Interactional theories of stress focal point on structural appearance of individual interface with work place environment (Doller 2003).
In the start reachers used stimulus response approaches where features of work design estimate negative result. This focus on the point that factor include the way such as in which individual and environment interact to get negative result practiced as strain (jones $ kinman, 2001).
The relation between strain and stressors consider as causal.many researches focus on the occupational stress and drive there relation to diverse indicax of nervous tention (Hart $ Copper, 2001).
Transactional theories of stress focus on the individual touching response related to their Surroundings, At the transactional analysis, strain occurs because of a perception that environmental demands go beyond personal possessions (Lazarus & Folkman, 1986). The discussion on the interactional or transactional theories of occupational stressexposed that the researchers have conceptualized these theories in more than a fewfundamentally dissimilar ways. The central point of interactional-theories of stress is the structural appearance of the person’s communication with their work environment, whereas,the transactional-theories of stress center on the person’s moving reactions and cognitivedevelopment related to their environment. Define stress as a result of stressors.which are role ambiguity, role conflicts and role overload.according to this theory the bigger the amount of stressors the bigger is the stress.which impact on the affective commitment and performance.
Job satisfaction refers to a situation that how much an individual feel pleasure at workplace. Job satisfaction describes the pleasant emotional state that facilitates the achievement of one’s job standards through assessment (Locke, 1969). The attitudinal aspect of job satisfaction involved that an employee intend to stay with a satisfying job and leave a dissatisfying job (Spector, 1985). Job satisfaction is defined as the view of employee’s about their job and the degree of good fit between organization and employee (Ivancevich, 1997). Job satisfaction related with the satisfaction of supervision, overall job, strategy, progress and promotion (Rutherford, 1998).
In this research study job satisfaction is considered as a mediator factor having mediating effect on occupational stress and affective commitment. Job satisfaction is a multidimensional aspect which has long been of concern in industrial and organizational psychology literatures (Bodur, 2002). Job satisfaction eventually leads to job performance and effective organizational commitment which make sure the organization’s success (Spector, 2003). Precedent researches have been conducted for mediating effect of job satisfaction.
Regarding the relationship between occupational stress and job satisfaction, it appears that both variables are inversely related (Babin and Boles, 1998). More explicitly, findings show that employees in baking sector confronting higher occupational stress, also experience lower level of satisfaction, in contrast to those feeling less stress (Bhuian et al., 2005). The pragmatic support has been provided for negative relationship of job stress and satisfaction (Sullivan and Baghat, 1998). Job satisfaction has been an extensively studied topic reveals in various operationalization (Bowling and Hammond, 2008).
In research literatures, job satisfaction is directly allied with organizational commitment (Bateman & Strasser, 1984; Clugston, 2000; Yousef, 2002a and Meyer et al., 2002). Several researches describe that job satisfaction mediates the influence of various other variables on affective commitment (William & Hazer, 1986; Mathieu & Hamel, 1989; Loke & Crawford, 2001 and Yousef, 2002a). Further studies reveals the result, by focusing the five elements of job satisfaction as pay, promotion, task, salary and benefits; that employees of private banks were more satisfied with pay, benefits and working hours than public sector bank employees. While, employees were more satisfied with job security of public banks compared to private sector bank (Khalid S and Irshad MZ, 2010).
Organizational commitment is broadly demonstrate in the human resource management and organizational behavior journalism as a key factor in the relationship between individual and organization. The level of dedication powerfully influences the maintenance level of personnel and affects employee’s performance at job. Organizational commitment’s earliest concept derives from research work of Barnard (1938), Simon (1945), Becker (1960) and Kantar (1979). Organizational effectiveness is dependent on employee’s devotion to achieve goals. Therefore retention of involvement is very important for it (Barnard, 1938). This idea was elaborated that employee’s decision making based on the organization best concerns (Simon, 1945). Organizational commitment refers to an employee’s devotion in the goals and worth of organization, aspiration to settle and faithful to the organization (Mowday, Porter and Steers, 1982, p.27). Precedent researches have precise that organizational commitment has a foremost impact on the intention of employees to depart an organization (Lachman and Aranya, 1986). Organizational commitment is defined as an employee’s level of detection and interest in the organization (Simone, 2003).
Organizational commitment is integrated of three factors as affective or attitudinal aspect, continuance aspect and normative aspect (Allen & Meyer, 1993). In this research study focus has been given to the aspect of affective commitment. Affective commitment refers to an individual’s affection to, detection with and involvement in the organization (Meyer & Allen, 1997). Affective commitment is constant with the operational and conceptual idea of attitude (Iverson and Buttigieg, 1999). Affective organizational commitment is broadly discussed form of psychological link to an organization (Schneider, 2003). Affective commitment described as employees arousing relation to, recognition with and alliance in the organization (Brunetto and Farr-Wharton, 2003). Affective commitment is considered a valuable factor of organizational commitment since it indirectly persuade the other two dimensions of organizational commitment (Boles et al. , 2007).
Affective commitment is being used in this research study as a dependent variable which affected by occupational stress with mediating effect of job satisfaction. Different researches have been conducted for this aspect of affective commitment. Affective commitment has a considerable relation with occupational stress (Somers M.J, 2009). As to the cause and effect relationship between occupational stress and this, it is expected to contrary relationship exist (Varca, 1999). Affective commitment as an observed construct is generally viewed as a psychological state illustrates personnel relationship with organization to remain or leave the organization (Kendall et al., 2000). An organizational stressor may first influence affective commitment, as commitment start to decrease; it will be difficult to picture a state where satisfaction retains at same level (Elizur and Kosloswsky, 2001).
One study describe that there is fundamental association between stess and satisfaction (higher occupational stress causes lower satisfaction) and between satisfaction and affective commitment (lower satisfaction leads to lower commitment) (Elangovan. 2001). Result of a study concluded that role stressor; especially role ambiguity is inversely linked with affective commitment (Yousef, 2002). Employees with high level of affective commitment will decode into higher level of performance and satisfaction at job (Jex, 2002).
An honest, optimistic and extreme concern of an individual to the organization is stated as affective commitment (Shaw, 2003). When personnel are confronting with occupational stress they are tending to be less commited to the organization (Greenberg and Barron, 2000). The first modern theory of organizational commitment was the “Side-Bet” theory presented by H.S. Becker in 1960. This theory believed that commitment comes into life when an individual, by design a side-bet, links distinct interests with a stable line of action (Becker, 1960). The side-bet theory phrases that try to give details the process by which personnel bond themselves to organization through investments, such as time, effort and remuneration. These investments have costs which declines an individual’s freedom in his/her future activity to some extent
This section discuss the hypothetical relations of variable:
1)This research treats the relationship between occupational stress and affective commitment is negative for bank employees.this means if there is more occupational stress the lower will be the affective commitment of bank employees.Terefore increase in occupational stress the result would be decrease of affective commitment and lower in performance level.
The occupational stress at work is one of the factor that impact on performance of employees,low organizational commitment, cinflicts and bad communication (Cooper, 2001).
Chusmir and Franks (1988) argued that stress are direactly or indirectly linkef with affective commitment and over all organization competences and success.
As a cause and effect relationship between affective commitment and occupational stress there is nagitiveltiment existonal (Varca, 1999).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
H1:There is negative relationship between role overload and affective commitment.
2)One concluded that individual is less satisfied with job when faces higher level of conflicts as source of stress.This argument is strengthen by previous researches( yousef, 2002, Behrman and Perrault, 1984, Schaubroeck et al, 1989, Ruyter et al, 2001, karsh, 2005, Udo, 1997).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
H2:There is a negative relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction.
3)According to the different researches that who confrent higher level of role overload are less satisfied with the job. So there is inverse relationship between role overload and job satisfaction.(For example, Abdullah, 1991, singh et all, 1994, fox, 1993, jones et all, 2007, Yousef, 2002, Karcsh et al, 2005).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
H3:Role overload is negatively linked with job satisfaction.
4)Many researches have conclude the positive relationship between the job satisfaction and affective commitment.if the individual is more satisfied with their job then have positively impact on affective commitment and the job performance. (Jenkins and Thomlinson, 1992, Yousef, 2002, Strasser, 1984).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
H4:There is positive relationship between job satisfaction and affective commitment.
One concluded that individual is less satisfied with job when faces higher level of conflicts as source of stress.This argument is strengthen by previous researches( yousef, 2002, Behrman and Perrault, 1984, Schaubroeck et al, 1989, Ruyter et al, 2001, karsh, 2005, Udo, 1997).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
5): There is negative relationship between role conflict and affective commitment
6)According to different researches the relationship between job satisfaction and role overload have negatively impact on affective commitment.As job satisfaction mediates the effect of role conflicts and overload on affective commitment (For example Streer and Mowday, 1981, Farrel and Rusbult, 1981, yousef, 2002).Therefore it could be hypothesized that:
A)Job satisfaction mediates the effect of role conflict on affective commitment.
B)Job satisfaction mediates the effect of role overload on affective commitment.
AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT C
Panel A: Illustrate tne effect of Independent on dependant.
OCCUPATIONAL STRESS a b
AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT c-
Panel B: Illustrate the mediated effect of independent on Dependant.
The schematic diagram shows the two independent variable such as Role overload and Role conflict, Job satisfaction as the mediator and Affective commitment as the Dependant variable.
ROLE OVERLOAD _(H3)
+(H4) + (H4)
( Independent Variable) (Mediator) (Dependant Variable)
(Baron and Kenny 1986)
The figure Describes the Mediating Effect of job satisfaction on Role Stressors and affective commitment.
Under this study we describe the data collection method, sample and the techniques which are used to measured the variable of this study.
Brief Over view of the Research objective.
The main objective of this research is to investigate the relationship between Occupational stress such as Role stressers, Job satisfaction and Affective Commitment.
Another Oblective is to explore the mediating effect of job satisfaction on role stressers on one hand and on the other hand on Affective Commitment.
To investigate the negative relationship between occupational stress and Affective Commitment.
Questionnaire was used to collect the data.The reason to use this method is that it is less expensive and the data must be collect in shorter time period.
The sampleof the study consist of 150 employees of banking sector in one Pakistani city D.G.Khan.170 questionnaires were distributed among banking employees. Total 150 qauestionnaires were returned, all these 150 were suitable for data analysis.
Table 1: Shows the main characteristics of sample. Regarding this 80% are Male and 20% are Female.Of the object 50% are 20-30 years, 47% are 30-40 years and 3% are above 40 years.Of the object 34% are under the experience of 1-3 years, 47% are under the experience of 3-7years and 20% are under experience of 7 years and above.
Role overload was measured by using likert scale,ranking from 1 (strongly agree) 5 (strongly disagree).Example of this items included as “At work I am expected to do many different task in too little time.” And “I feel that my job responsibilities are increasing”.
Role Conflict was measured by using likert scale,ranking from 1 (strongly agree) 5 (strongly disagree).Total items consist of 12 items.Example of this items included such as “I am expected to perform task in job for which I have never been trained”. And “I worry about meeting my job responsibilities”.
Job satisfaction the mediator variable was measured using the Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire(Johnson and Weiss, 1971).The total items consist of this scele was 20.A five point likert scale was used , 1 (very satisfied) to 5 (very dissatisfied).such as the examples included “My pay and the amount of work I do” and “The chance to do something that makes use of my abilities”.
Affective commitment was measured using the (Porter et al., 1974; Modway et al., 1979) Six items scale.Five point likert scale was used ranging from 1 (strongly agree) 5 (strongly disagree). Examples of such item included “I really feel that this organizational problem was my own problems” and “I donot emotionally feel to attach this organization”.
SPSS version 20 was used in order to analyze the collection data. In this order percentage and frequencies were used to show the main characteristics of the sample. Mean, Standard Deviations, Intercorrelation of the all variables were also calculated. Linear Regression was also used to analyze the job satisfaction as the mediating role.
Table 2 shows the descriptive statics of tne variables.The resuls that must be conducted presents that banking employees have moderate level of Role over load () and Role Conflicts.At the same senerio result also presents that they perceived low level of Job satisfaction () and Affective Commitment().
Table 3 presents the Reliability level among the main variables.The RO reliability that is (0.60) and the reliability of RC is (.643) the reliability of job satisfaction is (.863) and the Affective commitment reliability is (.642).
Table 4 presents the correlation test according to that the relationship between role overload and Affective commitment is negative(r = -.292, p<.01).Beside this there is also negative relationship between role overload and job satisfaction(r = -.262, p<.01). In addition a significant negative relationship between role conflict and job satisfaction(r = -.411, p<.01) .A significant positive relationship between job satisfaction and Affective commitment( r = .632, p< .01).There was significant negative relationship between role conflict and Affective commitment(r = -.315, p<.01).
The results shows that the relationship between role overload, role conflict was negative to job satisfaction.This