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Examples of Geography

Geography is the study of the Earth, including its physical features, atmosphere and resources.

Geography Terms

  • Antipodes – Two points that are on the exact opposite sides of the earth, for example, the North and South Poles.
  • Archipelago – A group of islands, for example, the Bahamas.
  • Atoll – A ring of coral that makes an island, for example, Lighthouse Reef near Belize.
  • Basin – A section of land eroded by water, causing it to be lower than the surrounding land.
  • Bay – A small body of water enclosed partially by land, for example, Hudson Bay in Canada.
  • Butte – A hill with a flat top and steep sides, for example, Merrick’s Butte in Arizona.
  • Canal – A waterway made by man for irrigation or easier transportation, for example, the Suez Canal.
  • Canyon – A valley that is deep and has steep sides, for example, the Grand Canyon.
  • Cape – A section of land that juts out into the water, for example, Cape Cod.
  • Cave – A large open area in the ground or in the side of a mountain or hill, for example, Mammoth Cave in Kentucky.
  • Channel – A narrow stretch of water between to larger bodies of water, for example, the English Channel.
  • Cliff – A step rock face many times found by the ocean, for example, the White Cliffs of Dover.
  • Continent – A large land mass, for example, Africa.
  • Cove – A small bay that is sheltered and shaped like a horseshoe, for example, Coron Island Cove in the Philippines.
  • Delta – The area at the mouth of a river formed with deposits brought down the river, for example, the Ganges Delta in India.
  • Desert – An area with little rainfall and sparse vegetation, for example, the Sahara Desert.
  • Dune – A hill made of sand, for example, the White Sands in New Mexico.
  • Estuary – The area where the fresh water from a river meets the salt water from an ocean, for example, the Amazon Estuary.
  • Fjord – A long narrow inlet between steep cliffs, for example, the Lysefjord in Norway.
  • Geyser – A hot spring that occasionally send up a column of water and steam, for example, Old Faithful in Yellowstone Park.
  • Glacier – A large mass of ice that moves slowly, for example, the Easton Glacier on Mount Baker.
  • Gulf – An area of ocean partially surrounded by land, for example, the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Hill – A raised mound of land, for example, the Chocolate Hills in the Philippines.
  • Ice shelf – A platform of ice floating near the coast, for example, the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
  • Island – A piece of land totally surrounded by water, for example, Crete in Greece.
  • Isthmus – A narrow strip of land that connects two larger land masses, for example, the Isthmus of Panama.
  • Lagoon – A body of water that is not very deep with a sandbank or strip of land separating it from the ocean, for example, the Blue Lagoon in Iceland.
  • Lake – A large body of water totally surrounded by land, for example, Lake Titicaca in the Andes.
  • Marsh – A wetland near lakes and streams, for example, the Macoun marsh in Ontario, Canada.
  • Mesa – A large land formation that is flat on top and has steep sides, for example, Tucumcari Mountain in New Mexico.
  • Mountain – A very tall landform, for example, Mt. Everest in the Himalayas.
  • Oasis – An area in a desert that has water and vegetation, for example, the Siwa Oasis in Egypt.
  • Ocean – A very large body of salt water, for example, the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Peninsula – An area of land surrounded on about three side with water, for example, Italy.
  • Plain – Flat areas of land, for example, the Great Plains in North America.
  • Plateau – A tableland that is fairly flat, for example, the Tibetan Plateau.
  • Pond – A small body of water surrounded by land, for example, Walden Pond in Massachusetts.
  • Prairie – A large flat area with grasses and few trees, for example, the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie in the United States.
  • Range – A series of mountains, for example, the Appalachian Mountain Range.
  • Reef – A growth of coral under the sea and near the surface, for example, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia.
  • River – A large body of water that flows, for example, the Nile River.
  • Sea – A large body of salt water, for example, the Black Sea in Europe.
  • Strait – A strait is a narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water, for example, the Strait of Gibraltar.
  • Swamp – A freshwater wetland with muddy land, for example, the Amazon River floodplain.
  • Tributary – A river that flows into a larger river, for example, the Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River.
  • Tundra – A flat, treeless area where the soil if permanently frozen, for example, the Greenland Tundra.
  • Valley – The low area between mountains, for example, the Rio Grande Valley.
  • Volcano – A mountain with a vent where lava, steam, and ash comes out, sometimes violently, for example, St. Helen’s.
  • Waterfall – Water falling from a height, usually off a cliff or side of a mountain, for example, Niagara Falls.

All of these terms show different examples of geography.


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