Using Picture Series in Teaching Writing Narrative Text of 10th Grade Students at SMK Negeri 1 Banjarmasin in Academic Year 2017/2018
This research is aimed to find out the difference in students writing narrative text taught using picture series and taught using individual pictures of 10th grade students at SMKN 1 Banjarmasin academic year 2017/2018.
Quasi-experimental design with a quantitative approach was used to conduct this study. There were 542 students as the population with 60 students chosen as sample by using cluster random sampling method. Achievement test was used to collect the data which was calculated by using Pearson Product Moment formula to examine the reliability of the test, while t-test formula was used to test the result of the study.
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Hypothesis testing showed that the t-test was higher than the t-table (6.16 > 2.00), which means that there is a difference in students’ achievement of writing narrative text taught using picture series and taught using individual pictures.
In other word, X B Administration which was taught by using picture series had better achievement in writing narrative text than X C Administration which was taught by using individual picture.
Keyword: Writing, Narrative Text, Media, Picture Series, Individual Picture, Achievement
Background of the Study
According to Brown (2001, p. 232), listening, speaking, reading, and writing are four skills of practice in English language teaching. Writing is stated as one of important skill in English, thus, students should have a good ability in writing skills.
According to Ministrial Regulation of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia no. 24/2016 about Core Competence and Basic Competence of subject in 2013 curriculum, basic competence is the ability and the substance of minimal learning which must be achieved by the students to a subject on each education level which refers to the core competence.
Richards and Renandya (2002, p. 303) state that writing is the hardest skill for L2 learners. Harmer (2007, p. 278) said that diction or grammar is the difficult part in writing.
In some schools, most of the students get difficulties in writing because of their poor ability to develop ideas and their class activity seems to be stuck in a rut. This is in line with the previous study conducted by Puspitasari (2014) who stated that the students at SMAN 1 Srandakan still have some difficulties in writing in English. Expressing their idea and starting a sentence in their writing are their weakness. A study conducted by Ariningsih (2010) also showed that the students still have poor ability in writing because of a monotonous teaching strategy. Another study was conducted by Sofyan (2014) stated that students’ score and process of writing were so low.
These conditions also occurred in SMKN 1 Banjarmasin. Most of their problems occurred in generating ideas which caused to their low score in writing composition, that was under 70 instead of their standard score 75. They usually asked the teacher how to write and how to start the sentence without paying attention to the teacher’s explanation. Therefore, the researcher wants to see the difference in students’ writing narrative text achievement taught using different treatment. It aims to find out the best way to teach writing in narrative text by using media.
Media in teaching are defined as a tool to stimulate students’ attention in studying. Briggs in Sadiman, et.al. (2009, p. 6) states that media is a tool which can stimulate students to study.
Picture series is found quiet effective to teach writing narrative text. According to Yunus (1981, p. 50), its main function is to tell a story or sequence of events. Here, the researcher would like to conduct an experimental research of using picture series in writing narrative text.
The previous study conducted by Nurrakhmawati (2015) stated that there was a significant difference in writing narrative text achievement between tenth grade students at SMAN 13 Banjarmasin academic year 2015/2016 who are taught by using picture series and individual picture. The achievement in writing narrative text gotten by the students taught by using picture series was better than the class which was taught by using individual picture. A study conducted by Ariningsih (2010) which gave a big concern to the effectiveness of using picture series in writing skill found that teaching writing by using picture series of the seventh grade at SMPN 1 Tanjunganom, Nganjuk in academic year 2008/2009 is more effective than using translation method. She also stated the motivation of the students is influenced by teaching technique.
As some reasons mentioned above, this experimentation was conducted in order to find out the difference in students writing narrative text taught using picture series and taught using individual picture of 10th grade students at SMKN 1 Banjarmasin.
Writing is a process of transforming idea into signs to be communicated to other people. Both product-oriented approach and process-oriented approach should be balanced to produce a good writing.
The process of how the students are given some encouragement to write called planning.
Drafting gives its focus on fluency. It ignores some grammar mistakes and neatness.
In revising stage, the students recheck what they have written to see how effective they have communicated their idea to the readers.
At this stage, the students tidy up their text as a final product.
Media is a supplemental support for instructional process. It can be in a form of audio or visual.
Picture is a visual media which can stimulate and provide information to be referred to in discussion or storytelling.
Picture series consist of a number of pictures place in sequence.
Individual pictures are single pictures of objects, persons or activities.
Method of the Research
This study used quasi-experimental design.
The population was the 10th grade students of SMK Negeri 1 Banjarmasin. There were 15 classes, and total of the students were 542 students.
The researcher took two classes as the sample of the research. Cluster random sampling was used to take the sample. As the result, the experimental class was the X B OP class that consisted of 36 students and the control class was X C OP class which consisted of 36 students.
In this study, written test was used. The students of SMK Negeri 1 Banjarmasin as control and experimental group are required to write a narrative text by the given picture.
Commonly, there are three steps to collect data in experimental research. Firstly, preparation before starting teaching and learning activity in the class, researcher prepared a lesson plan. The second step is execution. In this step of experimentation, the researcher started to teach narrative text by using picture series to experimental group and by using individual picture to control group. The last step is data analysis. The test result from both control class and experimental class were calculated.
The data analysis in this study was done through these followings steps:
- Analyzing the students’ writing result by scoring the students’ score based on the scoring rubrics containing idea, organization, language use, and vocabulary.
- Analyzing hypothesis by using t-test formula.
- After calculating the t-test, the researcher compared the t-test with the t-table. The degree of freedom is df = (N1 + N2)- 2, and the level of significance is 0.05. After that, the researcher drew conclusion of the hypotheses.
Findings and Discussions
Result of Pre-Test and Post-Test
Diagram below reveals students’ score in writing narrative text:
According to the result, the students’ score in experimental class on pre-test and post-test is different. In pre-test, the experimental class’ average score was 68.22. After they got the treatment by using picture series, the average score in post-test of experimental class was 74.80. It means their achievement in writing increased. In control class, the difference between pre-test and post-test average score was 68.02 and the average score of post-test was 71.14.
In this research, the result of t-test was 6.16 and t-table was 2.00. This means that the t-test was higher than t-table. As the result there was a difference in writing narrative text achievement between the tenth grade students who are taught by using picture series and individual picture at SMKN 1 Banjarmasin in Academic year 2017/2018.
Wright (1989, p. 17) suggests some roles for pictures in writing, one of them is pictures can stimulate, and provide information to be referred to in discussion or storytelling.
Referring to the objective of the research, the finding showed that the use of picture series has any difference with the use of individual picture in writing narrative text. Using picture series gave a better impact than using individual picture.
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Proven by the post-test result, the experimental group was taught to write by using picture series and control group was taught to write by using individual picture. Both treatments were succeeded to give a good achievement. The significant changed occurred in experimental class in their achievement in writing narrative text. This study proved that picture series helped the students in increasing their achievement in writing. Picture series assisted the students to develop their ideas to write in consecutive order.
This is in line with the previous studies conducted by Nurrakhmawati (2015) and Ariningsih (2010) who found that picture series is a good media to write narrative text, because it assists students in generating and arranging their ideas orderly.
The picture series consists of five pictures based on the sequence or event in that story. Every picture explained an event that made students can explore that event to get further information related to the picture. The use of picture series was effective in raising students’ interest in writing narrative text and it can motivate the students to organize their writing.
This is because picture series consist of several scenes, and they are showed by sequences of pictures which are arranged orderly. This result of study proves Wright’s (1989, p. 17) theory that pictures can stimulate and provide information in storytelling.
Through all the findings obtained, the researcher admits that there were still many intervening variables which were out of control in this study. Fraenkel et al. (2012,p.82) stated that, extraneous variables are the influence or effect of other variables that exist or independent variables that have not been controlled. In this study, the researcher minimized the extraneous variables by conducting different test with the same topic in pre-test and post-test. The instrument of the study is also considered as a reliable and valid instrument to control unreliability in measuring instrument which may result in invalid assessment of performance. To control statistical regression, the researcher selected groups which have similar characteristics and equal in specific level. The researcher chose the class with the same grade, major, treatment, and average score in writing test, that was 10th grade of administration class. Therefore, there are still many shortcomings which make this study imperfect yet still yield valuable information.
In conclusion, the students’ average score of experimental class was higher than the control class even though both of the groups showed increasing score.
Conclusions and Suggestions
Based on the research and data analysis, the researcher concludes that:
- there is a difference in writing narrative text achievement of using picture series and individual picture. In other word, teaching writing narrative text by using picture series showed a greater effect to increase students’ achievement rather than students taught by using individual pictures;
- the data shows that the students’ average score in experimental class in pre-test 68.22 and it is 74.80 in post-test. Meanwhile, the students’ average score from control class in pre-test is 68.02 and 71.14 in the post test. Indeed, picture series was more effective in teaching writing rather than individual picture because it stimulates students in finding idea and it helps students to arrange their idea in a consecutive order.
In line with the conclusion, several suggestions are proposed as follow:
- teachers are suggested to use picture series to teach tenth grade students of SMKN 1 Banjarmasin in writing narrative text to build motivation and develop students’ idea in writing orderly.
- students are suggested to practice their writing skill more by using media as a tool to help them learn writing easily.
- other researchers are suggested to conduct similar study to see how effective picture series can be applied in teaching writing to other research setting.
- Ariningsih,D., 2010. The Effectiveness of Using Picture Series to Improve the Students’ Writing Skill Viewed from Their Learning Motivation. Skripsi tidak diterbitkan. Surakarta: Graduate School Sebelas Maret University Surakarta.
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