ADDICTION BY DESIGN
1.0 Question 1
1.1 Are Some Objects Evil
Addiction by design details the different elements of addiction where gaming is concerned. Natasha develops an in-depth analysis of the different objects and designers as they interact with their users with the aim of entrancement. The capacity for objects being evil is particularly discussed to detail the objectivity of the information that has been realised in the book (Schüll, 2012). The philosophical question of whether objects can be evil will be analysed from the perspective of the three key actors. The user and the machine are the two major actors who define whether the machines can develop innate perception of evil in their actions.
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Gaming machines operate in a manner that requires interaction with a video slot as opposed to coins. Other games have also been found to take up pay cards as opposed to cash because the position played by video slot would effectively result in the slowing down of the play time (Schüll, 2012). In this essence, the object can be conferred as being evil because it is taking advantage of human nature to need and experience immediate satisfaction. While the national profits coming from video games increase yearly, it is evident that they do not come from the exercising of positive innate human positive innate instincts.
Another way that an object, as is the case with this book, can be seen to be evil is through its addictive nature. Women have been found to be particularly very easy to get addicted to the services offered by the systems as developed. The main reason for this ease of addiction is that the systems have provided their users with an avenue to a parallel universe that has the potential to help them realise their most immediate dreams (Schüll, 2012). Therefore, the object in question is a gateway to an innate human emotion and belief system that will minimise their ability for real life experiences which in turn results in the evil in question.
Another element of evil as observed is the fact that all the users involved have developed a tendency for dependency. Users have been seen to develop a measure for improved spending as a result of interaction between designers and casino owners. The manifestation of evil can therefore be attributed to the high level of dependence between the users and the machines plus the environment in which the system is having the interaction in (Schüll, 2012). However, one tends to develop a perception that the systems in question will result in an increase in the number of evil experiences that will be attributed to particular objects.
In conclusion, the object in itself cannot be said to be evil. However, the interaction between the different players in this industry will result in the development of an evil system that elicits demonic tendencies on their clients. The casino owners have an intention that will align with a user’s neurology in a manner that will make them observes the machines in a way that benefits one party more than the other. The objects as have been used will not entirely influence the interaction between user and premises in a positive manner.
1.2 What Does Bruno Latour’s ANT Approach Suggest?
Bruno’s approach to ANT (Actor – Network Theory) suggests that networks can especially be used to perform effective evaluation of networks. Bruno’s approach suggests that there is a difference between organizational networks as compared to the application of networks in the form of architecture as it has been employed in a systemic form (Latour, 2005). However, one also finds that the procedure to improve interaction between networks will result in the improvement of quality of results intended. Bruno’s approach therefore suggests that networks can result in an improvement of the quality of results realised from any one network if implemented appropriately.
Bruno’s perspective also seems to suggest that there is a difference between the applications of form as compared to that of a process. Evaluative networks will provide one with a clearer understanding of the different ways in which Bruno is trying to differentiate form in the context of technology (Latour, 2005). The processes that are employed to realise an effective form have been found to result in the improvement of the quality of work that can be served in the long term. However, one also observes that Bruno seems to suggest that processes and form can work together to generate better results in the form of machine learning.
The social aspect of networks has been delved into by Bruno to detail a perception that a holistic view of information presented will result in an improvement of the quality of services presented. A co-institutive perception of the ways in which networks are applied has been seen to develop the perception of better networks from Bruno’s perspective. It is also important that the networks developed will result in the phenomenon of a system that will influence development (Latour, 2005). According to Bruno, the perception that networks can be a verb often will result in the development of a system that will help resolve any issues that come up. The application of a network as a working system will be effective in ensuring actors and objects interact seamlessly.
Bruno’s perspective of ANT also seems to suggest that the actors will be independent entities working with the network in question. An observation by Bruno that individual nodes in any one network will often result in an improvement of the quality of the work as designed by the services delivered (Latour, 2005). However, one also observes that the network will be held in high regard as identified by Bruno. It is particularly very important for the services being realised in the system that they develop a perception of better quality with regards to the input designed for the system.
2.0 Question 2
2.1 How do Professionals Design for Interior States
The professional has physically designed the machine area of the casino to be such that it is enclosed and private. A relationship between the environment where the player is interacting with the system and the player in question needs to be conducive enough to provide the player with an opportunity to have the experience of being in their own world. Therefore, professionals have developed a design that will result in the acquisition of a box like design that encases the player in a private environment that encourages them to play even more if they are going to realise the enjoyment of gambling.
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The constriction of space for gamblers in interior states conforms to research that shows that most players would rather play at a corner. The creation of space in the gambling floor has been seen to minimise the ability of the player to have a sense of privacy. A protected sanctuary has been observed to encourage more players to partake in the gambling. Introducing canopies and hood has also been elemental in encouraging more players to partake in the development of solutions associated with better playing. Professionals have therefore incorporated he segmentation of casino floors into their design which work well with needs of the players.
Equipment congestion is also another design strategy employed with the intention of selling the idea of immediacy to the players. This design as implemented by professionals has been found to allow for an increase in the number of machines that can be crammed into a small space. One also finds that the passageways and alleys are narrow within the floor which increases the sense of immediacy for the players. The design as implemented by professionals is meant to increase the chances that a player is emotional about the game and thus more likely to spend more time on the machinery in question.
The professional will design a casino for the interior state with the intention of developing an environment that is ambient enough to keep players in the zone for long. The floor will be designed in a manner that will be smooth and comfortable for the average player with the intention of improving the quality of interaction between the player and the machines. It is important that the systems interact with the player to create a perception that there is both ambience and a sense of class in the environment in question.
The application of sensory atmospherics is a design procedure that professionals have employed effortlessly with the intention of improving the quality of works delivered to the customer. Atmospherics will involve controlling the scent of the environment where the games will be played as well as improving the type of music played on the floor. The experiential effect almost always influences for better and longer participation on the part of the player. The interior design of a casino will provide for improved quality of interaction between the player and the system.
The professionals have designed the floor such that patrons are less aware for the environment. It is highly important that the players are absorbed in the play as opposed to the different sensibilities that may distract them. Therefore, the design teams have developed a system that will ensure optimised lighting and sounds on the floor of the location. It is evident that an approach that plays into the moderations of a patron’s sensibilities allows them to concentrate more on the actual events going on the floor. The ability of a patron to spend more time with machines has been observed to be associated with the capacity for the design of the floor to entrance them.
2.2 What does Howe’s Argument add to the Idea of Experience Economy
Howe’s argument holds that the senses have played a huge role in the development of capitalism in modern society. According to Howe, the sense have been organised under capitalism in such a manner that they have influenced the ability of societies to f unction under capitalism (Howes, 2005). The aforementioned argument has been found to result in the acquisition of a perception of hyperaesthesia in a manner that takes into consideration the stimuli and rewards for reacting in a particular manner. Therefore, one can observe that this argument will add to the understanding of an experience economy as observed with one’s understanding of usability, luxury, and status.
Howe’s arguments add to the understanding of usability in the context of an experience economy by providing a perspective regarding pleasure and productivity. Howe’s arguments can allow one to infer that pleasing experiences as well as a sense of being productive will increase participation by a given individual (Howes, 2005). Therefore, there is a higher possibility that certain solutions can be realised if hyperaesthesia is applied in a positive manner as described by Howe. However, one’s understanding of an experience economy can be improved by Howe’s arguments mainly because his perceptions have resulted in a view of emotions as playing an important role in a capitalist environment.
Howe’s arguments add to the idea of an experience economy by providing insight into the way in which one will view luxury and the role it plays (Howes, 2005). A luxurious experience riles up feelings of exclusivity and thus serves to improve the quality of higher ratings on the art of the user. The arguments presented by Howe provides a better understanding of why a capitalist environment will have certain perceptions regarding the representations of wealth as well as how that wealth will influence the spending habits of people in that environment.
One last contribution towards an understanding of Howe’s arguments in relation to an experiential economy is that a sense of culture and status are particularly inclusive of the feelings that the members of society are experiencing. The idea of an experience economy benefits from Howe’s arguments in that they allow one to observe the extremity of the experiences that have resulted in the economic environment in question (Howes, 2005). Culture and status are associated with one’s feelings towards certain experiences in that they result in long term lessons for a group of people interacting with a particular economic system. Howe’s arguments allow one to observe how a culture can form thus resulting in classes within members of that culture and therefore an understanding of the reason for showcasing of one’s status.
3.0 Reference List
- Schüll, N.D., 2012. Addiction by design: Machine gambling in Las Vegas. Princeton University Press.
- Latour, B., 2005. Reassembling the social: An introduction to actor-network-theory. Oxford university press.
- Howes, D., 2005. Hyperesthesia, or, the sensual logic of late capitalism. Empire of the Senses, pp.281-303.