In this assignment we will look more into Lithuanias electoral, legislature and the executive systems. We will discuss Lithuanian political culture, strong and weak points of Lithuanians political system and many other aspects of Lithuanian politics.
Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), country located in Northern Europe ,but it is mainly called as an country of Eastern Europe due to soviet union occupation in 1940’s. 11 March 1990, the time when Lithuania became the first Soviet republic to declare independence. The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania came into force on 2 November 1992. The country is located near the beautiful southern east shore of Baltic Sea and it shares borders with Latvia, Belarus, Poland and the Russian exclave of Kaliningrad. The capital and the biggest city of Lithuania is Vilnius. The territory of Lithuania is divided into 10 counties, in which decentralized governance takes place. The counties are subdivided into 60 municipalities, of three types: 43 district municipalities, 8 city municipalities and 9 municipalities. Municipalities consist of 546 elderships. The spoken language is Lithuanian ,but most of older people are very good in speaking Russian, again due to Russia’s occupation of Lithuania, when people were forced to communicate, study, read and do other things in Russian. The population of Lithuania is dropping due to small wages, lack of employment and bad political aspects. The estimated number of people living in Republic of Lithuania according to 2009 statistics are 3.281.000. In our article we will look more into Lithuania’s electoral, legislature and the executive systems. We will discuss Lithuanian political culture, strong and weak points of Lithuanians political system and many other aspects of Lithuanian politics.
Republic of Lithuania is a multi-party, parliamentary republic, with only few semi-presidential governance approaches. The first article of Lithuanians republic constitution states that Lithuania is independent, democratic republic, legislative power is vested to Parliament (Seimas) and executive power is vested to the Government. Lithuania is a territorially centralized unitary state, self-government is a one-tier and at the lowest level.
“The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucija) defines the legal foundation for all laws passed in the Republic of Lithuania. It was approved in a referendum on October 25, 1992.” The Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania chapter 1; article 5 states:
“In Lithuania, State power shall be executed by the Seimas, the President of the Republic and the Government, and the Judiciary. The scope of power shall be limited by the Constitution. State institutions shall serve the people.”
The flag of Lithuania: The yellow stripe represents the sun, Lithuania’s fields of wheat and prosperity; the green symbolizes the country’s forests, flora and hope; and the red stands for the blood spilt for independence, courage and the people’s love for Lithuania.
GOVERMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
The Government of the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublikos VyriausybÄ-) is a ministers cabinet of the Republic of Lithuania. It consists of Prime minister who leads the activity of government and 14 government ministers who are in charge of 14 different Ministries:
Ministry of Environment – Gediminas Kazlauskas
Ministry of Energy – Arvydas Semokas
Ministry of Finance – Ingrida Å imonytÄ-
Ministry of National Defence – Rasa JukneviÄienÄ-
Ministry of Culture – Remigijus Vilkaitis
Ministry of Social Security and Labour – Donatas Jankauskas
Ministry of Transport and Communications – Eligijus Masiulis
Ministry of Health – Raimondas Sukys
Ministry of Education and Science – Gintaras Steponavicius
Ministry of Justice – Remigijus Simusius
Ministry of Foreign Affairs – Audronius Azubalis
Ministry of Economy – Dainius Kreivys
Ministry of the Interior – Raimundas Palaitis
Ministry of Agriculture – Kazimieras Starkevicius
The Government of Lithuania also runs the following 12 institutions of Republic of Lithuania:
Information Society Development Committee
Department of Physical Education and Sports
Lithuanian Archives Department
Weaponry Fund of the Republic of Lithuania
Drug Control Department
Department of Statistics
The Department of National minorities and Lithuanians living abroad
State Nuclear Power Safety Inspectorate
State Data Protection Inspectorate
State Food and Veterinary Service
State Tobacco and Alcohol Control Service
Public Procurement Office
The current Prime Minister of Government of the Republic of Lithuania at the moment is Anrdius Kubilius.
SEIMAS OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
“The word “Seimas” comes from a Lithuanian word “Sueiga, suÄ-jimas”, which means gathering or meeting”
Seimas of Lithuania Republic consists of 141 members that are elected by a secret voting for a period of 4 years. Around half of Seimas members (70) are elected by nationwide vote according to proportional representation. In order to vote for elections in the country you must be 18 years old and you have to be a citizen of the Republic of Lithuania. Other 71 members come from individual constituencies. According to Wikipedia (2010) party must receive at least 5%, and a multi-party union at least 7%, of the national vote to be represented in the Seimas. As I mentioned before Lithuania has a multi-party system and at the moment there are members of 10 different political parties, the following parties are:
Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats
Social Democratic Party of Lithuania
National Resurrection Party
Order and Justice
Liberals’ Movement of the Republic of Lithuania
Liberal and Centre Union
Electoral Action of Poles in Lithuania
Lithuanian Peasant Popular Union
New Union (Social Liberals)
degutiene.png Mrs. Irena DegutienÄ- the Speaker of Seimas
The Chair Man (speaker) of Seimas at the moment is Mrs. Irena DegutienÄ-
Seimas and the government was and is seen as a main power of Lithuania and it’s often disliked and criticized by Lithuania’s citizens and political opponents. People always see politicians as a selfish personalities, Government generally has the most power, means and interest to manipulate the system of values, or adjust it to their advantage. In Democratic societies the citizens feel free to criticize Government and its policies, the higher state officials, the head of the state or other politicians and its normal in Democratic societies. But the county is mostly dominated by pluralistic diversity of opinions and approaches.
In today’s political culture, the situation in Lithuania is indeed quite unfortunate, however, the modern state of Lithuania national political culture (philosophy, ethics and aesthetics), unlike most other European countries, is formed only on peasant traditions, rituals, and conservative Catholic values. Let’s take a look back into the time when Lithuania got freedom of the Soviet Union in 1990-1991 and restorative parliament was created. Vytautas Landsbergis who entered politics, in 1988, as one of the founders of SÄ…jÅ«dis, the Lithuanian pro-independence political movement. After SÄ…jÅ«dis’ victory in the 1990 elections, he became the Chairman of the Supreme Council of Lithuania at that time. At that stage enemies and opponents were dissatisfied with his election and rushed to slander him and called him “musician” thus trying to diminish or even deny his talent and political identity. But the better example of Lithuanian cultural model was seen in 1992-1993.
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF LITHUANIA
Lithuania is Democratic Republic which mean that President doesn’t have a big power compared to US political system. As we know The United And States of America is a federal constitutional republic, in which the President of the United States (the head of state and head of government), Congress, and judiciary share powers reserved to the national government, and the federal government shares sovereignty with the state governments. Wikipedia (2010).
At the moment the President of Lithuania is Dalia GrybauskaitÄ- she is the first female president in Lithuania and she is often called the “Iron Lady” by the media, she was also voted as a Lithuania’s women of the year in 2010. The greatest power of Lithuanian president lies in foreign policy as she is the one who deals with foreign questions, meets other politics, presidents and important people. Solves major foreign policy issues and, together with the government conducts foreign policy, signs international agreements and submit them to the Seimas for ratification. President performs significant sanctions in domestic policies, she also plays a role as major guarantor of effective Judiciary.
President of the Republic of Lithuania Mrs. Dalia GrybauskaitÄ- 225px-Dalia_GrybauskaitÄ-_2010.jpg
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